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Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. RITA classified a diagnosis as recent based on an AI < 1.5, unless epidemiological criteria (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3; viral load <400 copies/ml; the presence of AIDS-defining illness; prior antiretroviral therapy use) indicated a potential false-recent result. Of 508 diagnoses in 2016, we linked 448 (88.1%) to an avidity test result. RITA classified 12.5% of diagnoses as recent, with the highest proportion (26.3%) amongst people who inject drugs. On multivariable logistic regression recent infection was more likely with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection (aOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.04–6.45). Data were incomplete for at least one RITA criterion in 48% of cases. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating RITA into routine surveillance and showed some ongoing HIV transmission. To improve the interpretation of RITA, further efforts are required to improve completeness of the required epidemiological data.
Royal Jelly (RJ) is product from bees that is used to feed larvae in the hive as well as a main nutritional source for the queen honey bee. It has various important biological activities including as an antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cholesterol-lowering, and growth promoter activities and has the ability for inhibition of certain enzymatic degradation. It can be used for the improvement of growth performance, gut health and quality and safety of animal products in poultry due to its antioxidant and immune modulating properties. The antioxidant activity of RJ is mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. It is an excellent source of B and C vitamins and folic acid. The mineral profile of RJ is useful as it contains major macro and micro minerals. Studies conducted on supplementation with RJ in poultry diets have shown a significant increase in body weight, egg production, and immune levels and is especially useful in organic production. Supplementation of RJ at the level of 10 and 15 mg/kg in layer diets positively influenced egg weight (by 5.0% and 4.8% respectively), egg production (10.5% and 11.0% respectively), weight gain of hens (7.0% and 6.5% respectively) and yolk pigmentation (9.5% and 9.7% respectively). Total leukocyte and erythrocyte counts in the diet containing 200 mg/kg RJ were significantly higher than the diet contained 100 mg/kg or the unsupplemented control group. However, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and heterophil percent were reduced in RJ-fed groups. Supplementing poultry diets with RJ offers an opportunity to maximise profit from safe and high quality poultry production.
The cutaneous polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP) is presented by skin lesions usually in the third trimester of gestation and about 13% of women also suffer from perinatal depression.
To determine the frequency of pruritic urticarial papules of gestation with and without perinatal depression.
To assess the maternal causes for polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP) in patients with and without perinatal depression.
Cases and controls were matched on the grounds of maternal weight gain in gestation, hormonal changes, deficit in iron and zinc, dysregulation of hypothalamic pituitary axis, pre-maturity, pre-eclampsia, pre-term labour. Univariate and multivariate analysis, adjusting for important demographic factors and comorbodities was conducted to assess the relationship of PEP with and without perinatal depression in reduced and full models of ANOVA in regression analysis. (Reduced model Y = β0 + β1X1 + … and the full model Y = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 + β4X4 + β5X5 + β6X6 + …)
Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy with perinatal depression was statistically significant in maternal weight gain in gestation [odds ratio (OR) 1.20; 95% (CI): 1.15–1.30], hormonal changes [(OR) 2.78; 95% (CI): 2.52–2.82], deficit in iron and zinc [(OR) 2.18; 95% (CI): 2.04–2.38], dysregulation of hypothalamic pituitary axis [(OR) 1.37; 95% (CI): 1.18–1.49] and was not statistically significant in pre-maturity, pre-eclampsia and pre-term labour in cases and controls.
Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of gestation are commonly associated in patients with perinatal derpession.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Even though the association between dermatological conditions in pregnancy with psychiatric findings is vital for patient management, studies on these issues are limited.
To determine the frequency and nature of dermatological problems in pregnant women having primary psychiatric illness.
To establish an association between cutaneous manifestations in pregnancy with the hypothesis that psychiatric illness also has a role in pregnancy.
This was a case control study and non probability convenient sampling was used on 50 pregnant patients with cutaneous manifestations along with psychiatric illness and 50 age matched non pregnant patients free from dermatological conditions and psychiatric illness. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) Criteria was used to diagnose psychiatric illness and for skin manifestations patients underwent a physical examination of skin.
Pregnant patients with depressive disorders were associated with atopic eruption of pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 1.19; 95% (CI): 1.13–1.49], pruritic urticarial papules [(OR) 2.89; 95% (CI): 2.55–2.97], plaques of pregnancy [(OR) 2.14; 95% (CI): 2.01–2.39], prurigo of pregnancy [(OR) 1.33; 95% (CI): 1.17–1.45], intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy [(OR) 2.45; 95% (CI): 2.29–2.67], pemphigoid gestationis [(OR) 1.57; 95% (CI): 1.50–1.68], impetigo herpetiformis [(OR) 1.83; 95% (CI): 1.65–2.24], and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy [(OR) 2.34; 95% (CI): 2.20–3.62], psoriasis [(OR) 1.75; 95% (CI): 1.64–2.37], melasma [(OR) 1.88; 95% (CI): 1.63–2.49], intrahepatic cholestasis [(OR) 2.77; 95% (CI): 2.14–3.48].
The results of the study support the hypothesis, that there is an association between psychiatric and skin diseases in pregnancy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The early Miocene site of Wadi Moghra, Qattara Depression, Egypt, is important for interpreting anthracothere (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) evolution, because the Moghra sediments preserve a higher diversity of anthracotheres than any other pene-contemporaneous site. New specimens from Moghra are described and form the basis for the systematic revision of Moghra anthracotheres provided here. Among the important discoveries recently made at Moghra is the first complete skull of Sivameryx moneyi. Other new specimens described here include two new species of Afromeryx, and a new genus and species, all of which are unique to Moghra. A review of biogeographic information supports the conclusion that three of the Moghra anthracotheres (Brachyodus depereti, B. mogharensis, and Jaggermeryx naida, n. gen. n. sp.) are members of late surviving lineages with a long history in Africa, while three other species (Afromeryx grex, n. sp., A. palustris, n. sp., and Sivameryx moneyi) represent more recent immigrants from Eurasia.
The covalent functionalization of photosynthetic proteins with properly tailored organic molecular antennas represents a powerful approach to build a new generation of hybrid systems capable of exploiting solar energy. In this paper the strategy for the synthesis of the tailored aryleneethynylene organic fluorophore (AE) properly designed to act as light harvesting antenna is presented along with its successful bioconjugation to the photosynthetic reaction center RC from the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides .
A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20·4% and 24·8%, respectively. From 151 trunk-wash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most commonly performed treatments for infertile or hypofertile couples. General indications for IUI include cervical factor infertility, male infertility, minimal to mild endometriosis, and unexplained infertility. Age of the female, duration of infertility, follicular count, presence of trilaminar endometrium, sperm count and morphology are the various parameters which determines the outcome of IUI. The choice of IUI versus other forms of artificial insemination, the use of natural cycles versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), timing of insemination, the number of IUI cycles to be carried, whether the couple will need single or double insemination, the type of catheter, and the choice of sperm preparation technique are the various options available to the couples. Contamination with viruses has also occurred during use of reproductive technologies. However, there is evidence that use of IUI with washed sperm may decrease the risk of contamination.
The optical properties of Zn doped GaP single crystals were investigated in
the spectral range of 200–2500 nm. It was found that the spectral
distributions of R, n,
reflect sharp structure due to
valance conduction band transitions (Eg, E0, E1 and E2)
having the energies 2.17, 2.706, 3.708 and 5.245 eV, respectively. The
tested samples exhibit indirect allowed optical transition associated with
two phonons of energies 24.5 and, 58.7 meV. The free carrier concentration
was found to be 2.11 × 1018 cm−3. The oscillation energy
Eosc, dispersion energy Ed, lattice dielectric constant
, and optical dielectric constant at infinite frequency
were, also, calculated and found to be the values
4.4 eV, 38 eV, 10.27 and 9.7, respectively.