To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Molecular gas in the Galactic center region is spatially and kinematically complex, and its physical conditions are distinctively different from those of molecular gas in the Galactic disk (e.g., Morris 1996). Relative paucity of current star formation activity, despite the abundance of dense molecular gas in this region, is one of the problem at issue.
Donor-acceptor mixed-stack charge-transfer (CT) compounds can be regarded as a model system for charge carrier separation in molecular-scale donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Here we investigated fundamental photocarrier generation characteristics in single crystals of a donoracceptor mixed-stack system, phenothiazine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (PTZ-TCNQ). The laser beam-induced current (LBIC) measurement on the crystals allowed the discrimination between the exciton and the photocarrier diffusion on the basis of the observed spatial decay profiles. We found that the photocarriers are directly generated by higher-lying CT band excitation and exhibit extremely long diffusion length reaching more than 10 μm. We discuss the origin of the efficient photocarrier generation in terms of the geminate electron-hole pair formation.
Micro structures and interface structures of epitaxially grown PtSi and over-capping Si films on Si(111) substrates prepared by MBE were studied by RHEED, HREM, SEM and XRD. An epitaxially grown Si layer on the PtSi layer, which was fabricated by coevaporation of Pt and Si with the stoichiometric ratio (Pt/Si=l/1), was obtained as a Si(111)/PtSi(010)/Si(111) double heterostructure at the substrate temperature of 400°C. On the other hand, it was found that the PtSi layer transformed into epitaxial columns and/or walls when a Si over-capping layer was grown on the PtSi layer at a substrate temperature of 600°C or higher. These columns and/or walls were surrounded by a Si matrix which showed epitaxial relations to the Si substrate with stacking faults.
Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbEO157 and three were positive for wzyO26. Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.
A low-cost, non-vacuum reel-to reel dip-coating system has been used to continuously fabricate epitaxial Gd2O3 buffer layers on mechanically strengthened, biaxially textured Ni- (3at.%W-1.7at%Fe), defined as Ni-alloy, metal tapes. X-ray diffraction analysis of the seed Gd2O3 layers indicated that well textured films can be obtained at processing temperatures (Tp) between 1100 and 1175°C. Processing speed did not significantly affect the crystalline quality of the Gd2O3. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a continuous, dense and crack-free surface morphology for these dip-coated buffers. The Gd2O3 layer thickness led to remarkable differences in the growth characteristics of the subsequent YSZ and CeO2 layers deposited by rfmagnetron sputtering. Epitaxial YBCO films grown by pulsed laser deposition on the short prototype CeO2/YSZ/Gd2O3/Ni-(3at%W-1.7at%Fe) conductors yielded self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 1.2×106 A/cm2 at 77 K. Pure Ni tapes were used to asses the viability of dip-coated buffers for long length coated conductor fabrication. The YBCO films, grown on 80 cm long and 1 cm wide CeO2/YSZ/Gd2O3 buffered Ni tapes by the industrially scalable ex-situ BaF2 precursor process, exhibited end-to-end self-field Jc of 6.25×105 A/cm2 at 77 K.
We report the synthesis of superconducting MgB2 thin films grown in-situ by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Mg-rich fluxes are deposited with B-flux by electron beam evaporation onto c- and r-plane sapphire substrates. Deposition temperature is varied between 260 ∼ 320 °C. Base pressure of the MBE chamber is at low 10-10 Torr, rising to 10-8 Torr during deposition due mostly to the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen. Asgrown MgB2 films show superconducting transition at ∼ 34 K with ΔTc < 1 K. The films on c-plane sapphire substrates exhibit c-axis oriented peaks of MgB2, and full-width at half maximum of 3 degree in their rocking curves. Azimuthal phi-scan of the MgB2(101) peak shows 12-fold symmetric peaks, which is confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Plan-view TEM shows hexagonal-shaped grain growth with grain size of about 400 Å.
The presence of a superstructure is identified to play a key role for the modifications in both superconductivity and structure transitions in the Mg1-xAlxB2 system. This superstructure occurs along the c-axis direction, and can be well interpreted by Al-layer ordering. The optimal composition of the superstructure phase is MgAlB4, a superconductor with Tc ∼12K. Raman spectrum of MgAlB4 gives rise to a sharp peak at around 941cm−1. Brief diagrams illustrating the superconductivity and structural features of Mg1-xAlxB2 (0≤x≤1) materials are presented.
We report the fabrication and superconducting properties of ∼0.5 μm thick, fine-grained polycrystalline coatings of MgB2 on single-crystal substrate surfaces. The films exhibit large critical current densities, implying little effect from the grain boundaries. Analyses for thermal activation effects are inconclusive, and evidence is presented that the irreversibility line is dominated by the combined influences of Hc2 anisotropy and polycrystallinity. Comparative studies of the magnetic persistent currents and electrical transport properties reveal excellent agreement over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field. This result is contrary to similar comparisons on high-temperature cuprates, where disparities arise from the effects of large flux creep and the diverse electric field regimes probed by the two techniques. The MgB2 films exhibit extremely sharp voltage-current relations away from the irreversibility line, in qualitative agreement with observed large Jc values and low rates of magnetic flux creep.
A novel x-ray diffractometer has been used to characterize the texture of 2 km of textured tape in segments up to 20 m long. Techniques have been developed for the study of the uniformity of texture and for the detection of second phases, deviations from cube texture, and the sharpness of cube texture, in metal substrates, oxide buffer layers, and YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconductors.
We studied the influence of sample preparation and defects in the superconducting properties samples using atomic ratios of Mg:B=1:1 and Mg:B=1:2. Samples were characterized by SEM, and XRD, and the magnetization properties were examined in a SQUID magnetometer. The presence of Mg vacancies was determined by Rietveld analysis. Most of the samples exhibited sharp superconducting transitions with Tcs between 37–39 K.
We found a strong correlation between the crystal strain and the Tc. This strain was related to the presence of Mg vacancies. In addition, results showed that some samples degraded with time when exposed to ambient conditions. In these samples the Tc did not change with time, but the superconducting transition became broader and the Meissner fraction decreased. This effect was only present in samples with poor connectivity between grains and smaller grain sizes. The degradation was related to a surface decomposition as observed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. No correlation was found between this effect and the presence of Mg vacancies.
We have used a low temperature magnetic imaging system to determine current pathways in 5 cm long “good” and “bad” regions of a 1-cm-wide YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor. The good and bad regions were identified with 4 point probe measurements taken at 1 cm intervals along the tape length. The current density map from the good region showed the expected edge peaked structure, similar to that seen in previous work on high quality test samples grown on single crystal substrates. The structure was also consistent with theoretical understanding of thin film superconductors where demagnetizing effects are strong. The maps from the bad region showed that the current was primarily confined to the right half of the sample. The left half carried only a small current that reached saturation quickly. Effectively halving the sample width quantitatively explains the critical current measured in that section. Spatially resolved x-ray analysis with 1 mm resolution was used to further characterize the bad section and suggested an abnormally large amount of a-axis YBCO present. This may be the result of non-uniform heating leading to a low deposition temperature in that area.
Dependence of hexagonal GaN polarity on the polarity of GaAs (111) substrates was investigated by CAICISS for HVPE and MOVPE. Although polarity of MOVPE GaN followed the polarity of GaAs substrate; Ga polar for (111)A and N polar for (111)B, both layers of HVPE GaN grown on GaAs (111)A & B surfaces were Ga polarity. Crystal quality was better for Ga polarity layers than for N polarity layers for MOVPE. However, Ga polar GaN grown on GaAs (111)B by HVPE had better crystal quality than that on the (111)A. These results can be understood by difference of the buffer layers and difference of growth kinetics between HVPE and MOVPE.
We investigated the optical, electrical and structural properties of the layer which was implanted with sulfur ion(S+) in 4H-SiC. By using the high temperature ion implantation technique more less residual defects were observed compared with the room temperature ion implantation by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling(RBS-channeling). After annealing at 1700°C there was no significant difference between the implanted sample and virgin sample in crystallinity within the detection limit of RBS-channeling. From the result of low temperature photoluminescence(LTPL) we could see the photoluminescences, so-called D1 and D2center, originating in the defects formed by ion implantation and post-annealing(∼1700°C) processes and confirmed that their intensities decreased with the increasing of the total dose of S+. The result of Hall effect measurement suggested that the conduction type of S+-implanted layer is n-type and their activation energies were 275meV and 410meV by the fitting of neutrality equation assuming the two activation energies for the hexagonal and cubic lattice sites in 4H-SiC.
We prepared quasi single crystalline pentacene monolayer films on Bi-terminated Si(111) by using bunched steps on vicinally-cut surfaces as an orientation template. Band dispersion in the conduction plane of pentacene was clearly observed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.
We investigated luminescent properties of rare-earth metal complexes and phosphor-rescent molecules doped in a conducting polymer. Electroluminescent (EL) properties in combination of red emissive europium complex of tris(di-benzoylmethane)-mono(4,7-diphenyl-phenanthroline) europium (III) (Eu(dbm)3phen) and blue phosphorescent molecule of bis[(4,6-difluoro-phenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'] (picolinate) iridium (III) (FIrpic) doped in poly(N-vinyl-carbazole) (PVK) and a new rare-earth complex tris(hexafluoroacethylacetonato) (phenan-throline) samarium(III) [Sm(hfa)3(phen)2] have been investigated as an EL emitter. White EL has been obtained from mixed layer of Eu(dbm)3phen and FIrpic, and EL from Sm complex has been obtained. Energy transfer and the emission mechanisms have been discussed.
The Nd5Fel compound has attracted some attention lately as a possible permanent-magnet material. This compound has a very complicated crystal structure (264 atoms per unit cell with 14 and 7 different Fe and Nd sites respectively!) Using linear-muffin-tin-orbital method, self-consistent spin-polarized studies of NdFe1 - have been carried out to determine the electronic structure, magnetic moments, and the Curie temperature. The results show strong effect of the local environment on the magnetic properties of individual Fe sites. The calculated moments are compared with the magnetization data. The Curie temperature estimated for the iron sublattice using the mean-field approximation is in a reasonable agreement with the experimental result.
Ultrathin ribbons of amorphous Fe83Cu1Nb7B9 obtained by planar flow casting, have been submitted to dc Joule heating in vacuum to develop a nanocrystalline phase. Variations in the initial magnetic permeability as high as 1000 times the as-quenched value have been measured in a wide range of nanocrystalline samples. The magnetoimpedance behavior in the microwave region has been studied as a function of the nanocrystalline state. In this work the intensity of the impedance variation has been related to the samples degree of softness.
Solar cells made from III–V materials have achieved efficiencies greater than 30%. Effectively ideal passivation plays an important role in achieving these high efficiencies. Standard modeling techniques are applied to Ga0.5In0.5P solar cells to show the effects of passivation. Accurate knowledge of the absorption coefficient is essential (see appendix). Although ultralow (<2 cm/s) interface recombination velocities have been reported, in practice, it is difficult to achieve such low recombination velocities in solar cells because the doping levels are high and because of accidental incorporation of impurities and dopant diffusion. Examples are given of how dopant diffusion can both help and hinder interface passivation, and of how incorporation of oxygen or hydrogen can cause problems.
Electrochemical sulfidation of n-type GaAs (100) has been investigated under anodic conditions with a view to surface passivation for improved electronic and optical properties. This treatment has successfully removed the native oxide and formed a thick layer of gallium and arsenic sulfides displaying high durability against oxidation and optical degradation compared to conventional dipping treatment using (NH4)2S solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to characterize the treated surfaces. These studies have been used to devise a structural model of the near-surface region. The results of Raman backscattering spectroscopy measurements indicate that there is a 35% reduction of the surface barrier height compared to the untreated surface. This passivation technique has been shown to be effective in reducing surface band bending on GaAs (100) and enhancing the chemical stability of the surface, making it more suitable for electronic and optoelectronic device applications.