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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial syndrome with significant interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study specifically investigates the association between family history of alcohol problems (FHAP) and family history of depression (FHD), and how these relate to different clusters of depressive symptoms.
Correlations between FHAP and FHD and different clusters of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were studied. We sampled 333 employees from a general hospital who had been receiving a psychiatric consultation between 2005 and 2012. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were conducted to explore these correlations.
There was a significant positive correlation between FHAP and BDI affective score. This result remained significant even after the adjustment for other variables considered as important factors for MDD, such as gender, age, marital status, education, ethnic group and FHD. More specifically, FHAP was correlated with dissatisfaction and episodes of crying among the affective symptoms. FHAP showed no statistical difference in any of the other clusters score or in the BDI total score. Moreover, as expected, we found a correlation between FHD and BDI total score and Somatic and Cognitive clusters.
FHAP should be routinely investigated in individuals presenting with depressive symptoms. This is especially important in cases presenting with dissatisfaction and episodes of crying in patients who do not endorse criteria for MDD. Due to study limitations, the findings require replication by neurobiological, epidemiological and clinical studies.
In this work we have conducted a study on the radiative and spectroscopic properties of the radiative precursor and the post-shock region from experiments with radiative shocks in xenon performed at the Orion laser facility. The study is based on post-processing of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the experiment. In particular, we have analyzed the thermodynamic regime of the plasma, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, and the specific intensities for plasma conditions of both regions. The study of the intensities is a useful tool to estimate ranges of electron temperatures present in the xenon plasma in these experiments and the analysis performed of the microscopic properties commented above helps to better understand the intensity spectra. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the possibility of the onset of isobaric thermal instabilities in the post-shock has been made, concluding that the instabilities obtained in the radiative-hydrodynamic simulations could be thermal ones due to strong radiative cooling.
El trabajo explora cuán estables fueron las estrategias humanas una vez que las poblaciones indígenas del centro-occidente argentino incorporaron cultígenos. Asimismo, evalúa si una vez incorporado el consumo de plantas domésticas, las estrategias fueron, o no, progresivamente apoyándose más sobre la producción y consumo de las mismas. El estudio compara tres sitios con restos humanos (Jaime Prats-1, Rincón del Atuel-1 y Cañada Seca-1) localizados entre sí a una distancia máxima de 40 km y en un valle considerado como el límite sur de la agricultura andina prehispánica. Estos sitios, que presentan una continuidad temporal, abarcan desde ca. 1900 (300 años posterior al registro inicial de las plantas domésticas en la región) a ca. 1400 años aP. Se comparan datos de isótopos estables (13C, 15N, 18O), morfometría craneal, mandibular y dental, junto a información contextual arqueológica. El sitio más antiguo, Jaime Prats-1, muestra semejanzas isotópicas y morfológicas con Cañada Seca-1, el más reciente, a pesar de no ser continuos en el tiempo. Ambos se diferencian de Rincón del Atuel-1, que temporalmente se intercala entre los dos. Los resultados señalan una mayor importancia del maíz en Rincón del Atuel-1, junto a una menor movilidad residencial, aunque en ninguno de los casos este recurso habría contribuido más del 30% a la dieta. Los sistemas humanos que ocuparon la frontera agrícola en estos primeros 500 años de uso de plantas domésticas muestran una alta variabilidad en su organización, sin cruzar umbrales que impidan retornar a sistemas de baja producción.
This paper contributes to scholarship on continental fish exploitation in arid zones in South America by exploring fish consumption by humans in prehispanic times using available zooarchaeological evidence from two wetlands in central western Argentina: Llancanelo and Guanacache lagoons. Analyzing the exploitation of this resource lets us discuss the intensification process that has been proposed for this area. Ichthyoarchaeological and archaeofaunistic information is integrated and compared to reveal that the oldest incidence of fish exploitation (ca. 3000 years B.P.) is from the Llancanelo lagoon. Fish consumption seems to have been practiced since the first occupations in both the wetlands and may reflect an adaptation to the new environment. Contrary to our expectations, temporal trends in abundance and diversity indexes do not show differences between the areas in intensification processes. We conclude that fish represent a major resource for sustenance both in Guanacache and in Llancanelo lagoons, although its exploitation was complemented with consumption of other small animals.
Fetal hepatic calcifications can be caused by infections, chromosomal disorders, thrombotic events, ischemic hepatic necrosis and subcapsular hematomas among others events. Its features and clinical significance are still not well known. We performed an observational study to describe fetal hepatic calcifications and its association with main clinical and histopathological findings from the fetal autopsy database, between 2007 and 2014. Raw odds ratio analysis was performed. We reviewed 591 fetal autopsies: 14 cases with hepatic calcifications, 102 fetuses with chromosomal disorders; 13 with diagnosis of TORSCH (toxoplasma, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus 1 and 2, and others) and 207 with any abnormality in the umbilical cord (UC). The relation between hepatic calcifications and chromosomal disorders in our series had significance. It is known that hepatic calcifications are common in chromosomal disorders, transplacental infections and UC abnormalities, those conditions are risk factor for hepatic calcifications formation; we suggest hepatic calcifications should alert the pathologists in order to consider these etiologies in first instance.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
In the frame of the COST ACTION ‘EMBOS’ (Development and implementation of a pan-European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System), coverage of intertidal macroalgae was estimated at a range of marine stations along the European coastline (Subarctic, Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean). Based on these data, we tested whether patterns in macroalgal diversity and distribution along European intertidal rocky shores could be explained by a set of meteo-oceanographic variables. The variables considered were salinity, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, significant wave height and tidal range and were compiled from three different sources: remote sensing, reanalysis technique and in situ measurement. These variables were parameterized to represent average conditions (mean values), variability (standard deviation) and extreme events (minimum and maximum values). The results obtained in this study contribute to reinforce the EMBOS network approach and highlight the necessity of considering meteo-oceanographic variables in long-term assessments. The broad spatial distribution of pilot sites has allowed identification of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients manifested through species composition, diversity and dominance structure of intertidal macroalgae. These patterns follow a latitudinal gradient mainly explained by sea surface temperature, but also by photosynthetically active radiation, salinity and tidal range. Additionally, a longitudinal gradient was also detected and could be linked to wave height.
Lithium cannot be determined by electron microprobe, but it may be an essential component in tourmalinesupergroup minerals. Therefore, its estimation is important for structural formula calculation and nomenclature. In this paper, we present a method to estimate Li content in tourmaline from microprobe data based on a multiple linear-regression model, which is not reliant on a particular normalization scheme. The results derived from this model are reasonably accurate, particularly for low-Mg tourmalines (<2 wt.% MgO) with Li2O contents higher than ∼0.3 wt.%. Furthermore, it provides a better fitness compared with estimations of Li assuming that Li fills any cation deficiency at the Y site.
The Endangered Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri is an endemic ungulate of north-western Africa. Information on the species has been based primarily on non-systematic surveys, and the corresponding status estimates are of unknown quality. We evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of two field methods for systematic surveys of populations of Cuvier's gazelle in arid environments: distance sampling (based on sightings) and sampling indirect sign (tracks and scats). The work was carried out in the north-western Sahara Desert, in Morocco, where what is possibly the largest population of Cuvier's gazelle persists. A logistically viable survey was conducted over a total area of c. 20.000 km2 in 10 expeditions during 2011–2014. A total of 67 sites were surveyed, with 194 walking surveys (2,169 km in total). Gazelle signs were detected at 50 sites, and gazelles were sighted at 21 sites (61 individuals). We found a relationship between sightings and abundance indices based on indirect sign, which could be useful for population monitoring or ecological studies. Additionally, the data could be used in occupancy modelling. Density estimates based on distance sampling required considerable effort; however, it is possible to survey large areas during relatively short campaigns, and this proved to be the most useful approach to obtain data on the demographic structure of the population.
Cet article examine l'hypothèse d'une convergence réelle de onze économies émergentes, en utilisant des techniques fractionnelles intégrées. Pour ce faire, nous examinons l'ordre d'intégration des séries du PIB réel par tête de l'Argentine, du Brésil, du Chili, de la Colombie, du Mexique, du Pérou, du Vénézuela, de l'Inde, de l'Indonésie, de Taïwan et de la Corée du Sud, ainsi que leurs différences par rapport aux États-Unis et au Japon. Nous trouvons des preuves d'un faible degré d'intégration des séries différenciées pour seulement quelques pays d'Amérique latine par rapport aux Etats-Unis, et de tous les pays d'Asie par rapport aux États-Unis et au Japon.
Cependant, nous ne trouvons d'évidence d'une convergence réelle que pour l'Argentine et le Chili par rapport aux États-Unis, et pour Taïwan par rapport au Japon. Ceci suggère la possibilité de groupes de convergences différents parmi les pays d'Amérique latine et d'Asie.
Studies of high redshift galaxies reveal compact sub-galactic regions of star formation, known as ‘clumps’. These ‘clumpy’ galaxies are useful for the study of galactic outskirts by enabling us to examine the radial progression of clumps over large time scales. We use the first deep high resolution NUV image from the Hubble Space Telescope covering intermediate redshifts to explore the implications this radial progression may have on galaxy evolution. From the analysis of 209 clumpy galaxies, we find that higher redshift clumps dominate the outer regions of galactic outskirts. This indicates that clumps may be migrating from the outskirts inward toward their galactic centers.
Massive (Mstellar ⩾ 5×1010 M⊙) Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) must build an outer stellar envelope over cosmic time in order to account for their remarkable size evolution. This is similar to what occurs to nearby Late-Type Galaxies (LTGs), which create their stellar haloes out of the debris of lower mass systems. We analysed the outer parts of massive ETGs at z < 1 by exploiting the Hubble Ultra Deep Field imaging. These galaxies store 10-30% of their stellar mass at distances 10 < R/kpc < 50, in contrast to the low percentages (< 5%) found for LTGs. We find evidence for a progressive outskirt development with redshift driven solely via merging.
The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is under-abundant w.r.t. solar while [Ca/Fe] is over-abundant.
Understanding the distribution of gas in and around galaxies is vital for our interpretation of galaxy formation and evolution. As part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) we have observed the neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in and around the nearby Local Group galaxy M33 to a greater depth than previous observations. As part of this project we investigated the absence of optically detected dwarf galaxies in its neighbourhood, which is contrary to predictions of galaxy formation models. We observed 22 discrete clouds, 11 of which were previously undetected and none of which have optically detected counterparts. We find one particularly interesting hydrogen cloud, which has many similar characteristics to hydrogen distributed in the disk of a galaxy. This cloud, if it is at the distance of M33, has a HI mass of around 107 M⊙ and a diameter of 18 kpc, making it larger in size than M33 itself.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies’ merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of galaxy’s halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. The Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey is the largest study to date of the resolved stellar populations in the outskirts of disk galaxies and its observations offer a direct test of model predictions. Here we present the results we obtain for six highly inclined nearby Milky Way-mass spiral galaxies. We find a great diversity in the properties of their stellar halos.
We introduce a novel approach to interpreting the well-known spatial correlation of gas densities with on-going star formation. Treated as a closed-loop process involving two physically distinct phases the data can be subdivided into regions that are active and those that are quiescent. The active regions can be distinguished by the presence of high-mass, short-lived, but recently-formed OB stars; the quiescent regions are marked by an absence of these stars and they are considered to be recovering from the last star-formation event and are re-collapsing. The relative (areal) frequencies of those two phases are directly proportional to the relative timescales. For four Local Group galaxies, NGC 6822, the Large & Small Magellanic Clouds, and M33, the cloud assembly/collapse timescales are all found to be monotonically decreasing power-law functions of density, with as yet to be explained differences.
Much progress has been made in recent years towards understanding how early-type galaxies (ETGs) form and evolve. SAURON (Bacon et al. 2001) integral-field spectroscopy from the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) has suggested that less massive ETGs are linked directly to spirals, whereas the most massive objects appear to form from a series of merging and accretion events (Cappellari et al. 2013). However, the ATLAS3D data typically only extends to about one half-light radius (or effective radius, Re), making it unclear if this picture is truly complete.
Recent theoretical and observational works claim the existence of galaxies with a characteristic age profile consisting on a negative radial trend followed by a smooth age upturn in its outskirts (“U-shape”). This shape has been generally related to down-bending light distributions; however, the existence of a real link between observed Surface Brightness (SB) profiles and changes in stellar properties such as age is still unclear.