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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
The objectives were to assess the following: (1) the relationship between sward height and chemical composition of four pasture types in association with grazing behaviour and body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows, and (2) the possibility of developing predictive equations of the nutrient intake and grazing behaviour within a continued grazing system. Pasture type had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on nutrient supply from January to June for all pastures investigated. Ryegrass–white clover pasture (RW) had the highest metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy, followed by kikuyu pasture (KP), which was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than native pastures 1 and 2 (NP1 and NP2). The highest values for effective grazing time, bite rate and BCS were found when dairy cows grazed RW followed by KP, NP2 and NP1. The results suggested that pasture type and sward height influenced grazing behaviour and BCS of dairy cows during the dry season. In the same vein, RW showed higher effective grazing time, bite rate, nutrient intake and BCS than the other three pastures suggesting that RW pastures that appear to be more expensive than native pastures could result in superior cow performance.
Dolphinfish (Mahimahi) are a high-demand resource for sport and coastal fisheries, mainly in the Pacific Ocean. Due to their economic and ecological importance, studies of their biology are very important to understand their function in ecosystems. We used stable isotope and stomach content analyses to determine the most important prey of the common dolphinfish, as well as the trophic level of this species in two areas of the southern Gulf of California. Stomach contents of 445 specimens were analysed. Using both techniques, we found that the most important prey for dolphinfish in the southern Gulf of California were three invertebrate species followed by fish. This contrasts with results from other authors who found that this species was mainly piscivorous in other locations. Stomach content analysis indicated differences in prey biomass by area, season and size class. The isotopic analysis did not show significant differences between seasons or sexes. Both stomach contents and stable isotope analyses showed that although this predator consumed a wide prey spectrum, only a few prey items made up the bulk of the diet, which resulted in a low SD in δ15N values and low Levin's index values. We conclude that this fish is an opportunistic predator that may consume a wide prey spectrum, but that it mainly consumes prey that are abundant in the area, such as crustaceans and cephalopods in the Gulf of California.
The aim of this work is to study the behaviour of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) adsorbed onto mineral surfaces (sodium montmorillonite, a clay mineral) in different pH environments as a possible prebiotic process for complexation of organics. Our experimental results show that specific sites on the surface of the clay increased the concentration of HCN molecules dependent on the pH values. Moreover, this adsorption can occur through physical and chemical interactions enhanced by the channel structure of the sodium montmorillonite. The three-dimensional channelling structure of the clay accumulates the organics, hindering the releasing (desorption) of the organic molecules. A molecular model developed here also confirms the role of the pH as a regulating factor in the adsorption of HCN onto the inorganic surfaces and the possibility for further reactions forming more complex molecules, as an abiotic mechanism important in prebiotic chemical evolution processes.
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.
The identification of early changes in the sperm plasmalemma is currently a factor in the improvement of freezing protocols. We analysed the presence of active caspases in freeze–thawed (FT) dog spermatozoa, and evaluated straws from eight dogs using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy with fluorescein isothyocyanate–Val–Ala–Asp–fluoromethylketone (FITC–VAD–fmk) combined with ethidum homodimers. Apoptotic-like changes were evaluated using the YO–PRO-1/ethidium homodimer combination, and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored with JC-1. Sperm motility post-thaw was evaluated using a CASA system. FITC–VAD–fmk stained sperm cells in situ and the subcellular labelling pattern was consistent with known localization of caspases. On average, a high proportion of FT canine sperm showed caspase activity, ranging from 30.2 to 70.7% of the live sperm compared with 7.3 to 24.0% in dead spermatozoa. This observed differentiation between caspase activity in dead and live spermatozoa may be a simple method to disclose subtle differences in sperm quality, since this staining allowed us to find statistically significant differences among dogs. Notably, the sperm sample with overall better results in all sperm parameters studied after thawing had a lower percentage of active caspases in both dead and live spermatozoa.
Concentrates are the main cash expenditure in smallholder campesino dairying in the highlands of Central Mexico. Improved, low-cost, appropriate feeding strategies have been therefore identified by campesinos as a priority. An on-farm trial was undertaken in 1998 to evaluate the response to supplementation with concentrates by dairy cows in early lactation during the rainy season with restricted access to grazing of ryegrass/white clover pastures. A base of 3·0 kg commercial concentrate/cow/day (S3) was compared against the higher rate used by farmers of 5·0 kg/cow/day (S5). Three farmers with one, and one farmer with two pairs of freshly calved upgraded Holstein cows participated in the trial (24±10·7 days into lactation). Data were analysed by a random block split-plot design where supplementation treatments were main plots and measurement periods were split-plots. Milk yield was recorded once per week for 9 weeks, and live weight and condition score for four 28 day periods. Milk yields were 21·8 for S3 and 21·9 for S5 (±0·714) kg milk/day/cow (P > 0·05); live weight S3 = 444·0 and S5 = 496·0 (±12·663) kg/cow (P > 0·05), and condition score S3 = 1·9, and S5 = 1·8 (±1·127) (P >0·05). There were no significant (P> 0·05) effects of measurement periods, and there was no significant (P > 0·05) interaction. The lack of response in milk yield, live weight or condition score to increased concentrate supplementation demonstrates that at these levels of production and management, the access to grazing of improved pastures, plus limited concentrate, enables cows in campesino systems to meet their nutrient requirements, and the feasibility of efficient milk production from grazed pastures as an appropriate technology. It is also concluded that it is an appropriate technology and that the results have implications for research and extension workers in rural development who have promoted large amounts of concentrate to dairy cows as the only way towards high yields and efficient milk production.
We report the case of a female patient who presented with sudden deafness as the first symptom of a cerebellar tumour which was not localized strictly in the cerebellopontine angle and did not show direct compression on the extrabulbar portion of the Vlllth cranial nerve. The clinical picture contained a number of signs and symptoms typical of cerebellar involvement.
Surgical intervention restored the hearing and caused the symptoms to disappear.
We also review the association between tumours and sudden deafness in the literature.
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