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In this paper, a general solution to the formation control problem without collisions for first-order multi-agent systems is proposed. The case of an arbitrary number of mobile agents on a plane with saturated input velocity is analysed. Besides, conditions on the communication graph among agents are relaxed to the only requirement of containing a directed spanning tree. This general approach is an extended result from the simpler case of combinations of cyclic pursuit communication graphs. The proposed solution to this problem is designed in two steps. First, the asymptotic convergence in the absence of collisions is ensured. After this, the non-collision problem is faced by analysing the most general possible geometrical scenario which can lead to collision among agents. Discontinuous vector fields with unstable counterclockwise focus behaviour are applied by every agent in order to repel each other. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998–2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes −1a (33.9% of total) and −1b (16.3%) being more frequent and subgenotypes −1d, −1e, and −1i at very low frequencies. The overall BVDV-2 frequency was 25.7% but it varied largely by region, reaching up to 48% in Southern states. BVDV-2b was the predominant subgenotype (84.8% of BVDV-2), followed by BVDV-2a (8.86%). HoBiPeV accounted for 19.9% (61/307) of the genotyped viruses and were detected at high frequency in cattle from Northeastern states. These findings demonstrate a unique mix of pestivirus species and subgenotypes, unlike that seen in Europe or North America. The design of effective diagnostic tools, vaccines, and control programs for limiting bovine pestivirus infections in Brazil must take into consideration this unique mix of viruses. This article provides a critical review of two decades of genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazil.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
In the southern Gulf of Mexico, the spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is the second most frequently caught batoid in small-scale fisheries off Campeche. Ecological aspects of this ray are unknown in this region, hampering the understanding of the relationship between its distribution and prey availability in the fishing area. In order to study the feeding habits of this batoid and characterize its potential prey in the study area, stomachs and intestines of 154 specimens (68 females and 86 males) were analysed. The results indicated that A. narinari near Campeche is a specialist and selective predator that feeds mainly on gastropods (92.7% IRI), with no significant differences in the diet found between sexes, size groups, or between stomach and intestine contents. In addition, the results indicated that the most important prey species in the diet were among the most common benthic species in three of the four sampling transects positioned in or adjacent to fishing areas for rays. These most important prey species were Strombus pugilis (53.33% IRI) and Americoliva reticularis (25.6% IRI). Other prey species included Lobatus costatus (5.6% IRI) and Petrochirus diogenes (3.6% IRI). This study suggests that this widely distributed ray species feeds in Campeche's coastal waters and that the study of its potential prey increases the understanding of ecological aspects of the species, which emphasizes the added importance of monitoring fishery impacts on prey species (e.g. the conch fishery off Campeche) to help support integrated assessment and management of fisheries.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
The goal of this work was the modification of silicone rubber (SR) by radiation grafting of glycerol methacrylate (GlyMA) which was limited just on the surface, allowing the control of hydrophilicity and swelling properties. The grafted SRs were activated by derivatization of GlyMA to 2-oxoethyl methacrylate using sodium periodate, enabling the chemical immobilization of lysozyme by covalent bonds. The presence of lysozyme was confirmed by non-specific assay and by the enzymatic activity at 30 °C with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (coccus, Gram-positive). The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance, thermogravimetric analysis, water contact angle, and by mechanical properties as well as scanning electron microscope.
The goal of this work was to provide antimicrobial activity to polypropylene by covalent immobilization of lysozyme. The first step was the grafting of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate through “grafting-from” method by means of γ-rays. Then those chemical groups were activated to allow the immobilization of lysozyme by Schiff bases. The activity of lysozyme showed an improvement by the remaining double bonds from the grafting. Finally, the presence of lysozyme was confirmed by the hydrolysis of Micrococcus lysodeikticus at different temperatures, pH values, and cycles. The new materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, contact angle, and by the surface morphology.
Harnessing the properties of imidazolium species, antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was attained by binary-grafting 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or N-isopropylacrylamide, followed by N-vinylimidazole onto polypropylene (PP) monofilaments (sutures) using 60Co γ-rays. Ulterior functionalization with methyl iodide was carried out to endow brushes with antimicrobial activity on the PP surface. The PP-grafted sutures were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflection, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis, and regarding the mechanical properties and the responsiveness to pH and temperature. Tests were performed on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus achieving large inhibition zones.
Functionalization of silicone rubber films with lysozyme was achieved by grafting copolymerization and its chemical activation allowing the covalent immobilization of the enzyme. The new materials were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and mechanical properties of films. The enzymatic activity of films was studied by a suspension of lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The activity test was inquired at different pH and temperatures, exhibiting enzymatic activity 20 °C above the free lysozyme, and at pH = 5 where the free lysozyme did not show activity.
The field of composites materials has evolved from the use of traditional fillers (e.g. carbon and glass fibers) to nanoscale fillers that add unique and often multifunctional properties to the neat polymer. Because nanoparticles have extremely high surface to volume ratios, that alter the mobility of polymer chains near their interfaces, even a small addition of nanoparticles. These components have the potential to drastically transform the properties of the host polymers. While the last decade has observed several advances in the field of nanocomposites, some recent reviews have made it clear that definitive structure-property relationships are insufficient in the literature. The influence of inorganic TiO2 nanoparticles on the dynamic mechanical properties and microstructure of copolymer based on Butyl acrylate - Methyl methacrylate - Acrylic Acid has been investigated. The mechanical relaxations of the reinforced copolymer/TiO2 composites were studied under tension mode. Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to acrylic copolymer produced a decrease in the glass transition temperature. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the local motions associated with the alpha-transition (40°C) are enhanced as the frequency of oscillation increases, i.e. the tan d maximum increases at higher frequencies. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles reduces significantly the strength of the alpha-transition. Thus, the cooperative molecular motions involving segments of the molecular chains associated with the alpha-transition were compromised by the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles resulting in a decrement of the storage modulus.
Based on the nature of the links and interactions existing at the hybrid interface, hybrid materials can be broadly classified in two main designations: a) Hybrid compounds Class I, that include all systems with electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding or Van der Waals interactions and b) Hybrid compounds Class II, showing that the inorganic and organic components are linked through strong covalent or ionic-covalent bonds. The physico–chemical properties of nanostructured copolymer acrylates based on butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA) has been investigated employing un-modified SiO2 (Class I) and modified SiO2 particles (Class II) using 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) as compatibilizing agent. The synthesis was carried out using seeded batch emulsion polymerization system. Metastable nanostructured emulsions containing 1 wt% nanoparticles were obtained. Films casted from the in-situ nanostructured latex exhibited excellent optical transparency suggesting good nanoparticles dispersion. However, the mechanical properties showed by SiO2-MPS nanocomposite, are better than the Class I hybrid compounds. Therefore, SiO2-MPS surface treatment prior to polymerization enhances the physical properties of copolymer BA-MMA-AA film. The mass loss derivative traces for the polyacrylic nanocomposites and the neat polymer obtained by thermogravimetric analysis showed that the onset temperature for thermal decomposition was shifted towards a higher temperature than the neat polyacrylic, indicating the enhancement of thermal stability of the un-modified SiO2 nanocomposite. However, there is a decrease of 40°C in the decomposition temperature for the modified polyacrylic nanocomposite. The results obtained so far have shown that weak Van der Waals and H-bonding interactions may be sufficient to enable improvement of the physical properties of the acrylate nanocomposites.
This paper proposes the use of a generalized finite difference method for the numerical simulation of free surface single phase flows during mould filling process which are common in some industrial processes particularly in the area of metal casting. A novel and efficient idea for the computation of the normal vectors for free surface flows is introduced and presented for the first time. The incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved by the well-known Chorin's projection method. After we showed the main ideas behind the meshless approach, some numerical results in two and three dimensions are presented corresponding to mould filling process simulation.
To assess quality of life of children and teenagers with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, according to the evidence of infection by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, compared with healthy volunteers and patients with chronic otitis media.
Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0.
Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents reported lower quality of life than healthy subjects (p < 0.01), but similar quality of life to patients with chronic otitis media. Those with human papillomavirus type 11 showed the lowest scores among all participants (p < 0.05).
Young Mexican patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents perceive a poor quality of life, and they may experience limitations in interactions with their peers. Infection by human papillomavirus type 11 may increase the impact of the disease on quality of life.