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In this paper the configurations of shock wave–boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) are studied theoretically and experimentally in Mach number 2 and 2.5 flows on test models with various wedge angles ranging from
. The proposed theoretical method couples the free interaction theory (FIT) with the minimum entropy production (MEP) principle to predict the appearance of separation shock, resulting in convex, straight and concave separation shock waves according to different solution combinations, which agree well with current experiments. Additionally, several influences on SWBLI are studied experimentally, in which the parameters related to theoretical solutions are found mostly determining the flow configuration, and SWBLI is much more sensitive to incident shock strength than incoming flow properties. Separation could be suppressed by incident shock when the MEP solution is smaller than the FIT, while it could be intensified when the MEP solution is larger than FIT; by contrast, the effects of separation position and model mounting height could be very weak.
Several preclinical studies have demonstrated neuronal effects of glucocorticoids on the hippocampus (HC), a limbic structure with anterior–posterior anatomical and functional segmentation. We propose a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis of hippocampus head (HH), body (HB) and tail (HT) using Cushing's disease (CD) as model, to investigate whether there is a differential sensitivity to glucocorticoid neuronal damage in these segments. We found a significant difference in the HH bilaterally after 12 months from trans-sphenoidal surgical selective resection of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary micro-adenomas. This pre–post surgery difference could contribute to better understand the pathopysiology of CD as an in vivo model for stress-related hypercortisolemic neuropsychiatric disorders.
Peripersonal space has been defined as the area immediately surrounding the body in which interactions with a person or an object can occur. Larger peripersonal space may reflect discomfort in close interpersonal situation or cognitive deficit. Individuals with schizophrenia are more sensitive to social stimulation. The capacity to provide accurate judgments of peripersonal space boundaries depend on the capacity to create an organized and structured mental representation that integrates signals from different sensory modalities and brain regions.
We conducted a study on personal space in patients with schizophrenia using a paradigm that was not affected by emotional and social interference.
We aimed to investigate the characteristics of personal space in patients with schizophrenia.
We recruited 20 schizophrenic patients according to DSM-V criterion and 20 healthy volunteers, matched by gender and age. Schizophrenic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Participants performed the peripersonal space (PPS) task. Collected data underwent statistical analyses.
Schizophrenic patients demonstrate a stronger/weaker need for personal space, than the comparison group, depending on the score of negative and positive symptom, as assessed by using the PANSS even without emotional and social interference.
Interpersonal interactions between the individual with schizophrenia and people in their immediate environment can lead to increased symptomatology. Social isolation is one of the most primary causes of poor quality of life in mental illnesses. Better understanding of the mechanisms for abnormal interactive behavior could provide significant valid guidelines for innovating intervention programs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Decreased cognitive control over the urge to be involved in gambling activities is a core feature of gambling disorder (GD). Cognitive control can be conceptualized as the sum of high-order cognitive faculties interacting in the achievement of goal-oriented behaviors. As such, cognitive control can be differentiated into several cognitive sub-processes, such as response inhibition, conflict monitoring, decision-making and cognitive flexibility, all of which prove to be pivotal in GD clinical phenomenology.
Over the past few years, several studies and reviews have indicated a lack of cognitive control in GD through self-report questionnaires and neurocognitive tasks. Conversely, there are only a limited number of neuroimaging studies, which investigate the neural mechanisms underlying diminished cognitive control in GD.
This research aims to systematically review functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that target cognitive control in GD.
A literature search was conducted in order to find appropriate published articles on fMRI studies in GD.
Fourteen fMRI studies were included. Depending on which neurocognitive task was employed, the studies were divided into five different sections: conflict monitoring, response inhibition, delay discounting, cognitive flexibility and decision-making.
Impaired activity in prefrontal cortex may account for decreased cognitive control in GD, contributing to the progressive loss of control over gambling behaviors. However, the way in which cognitive control interacts with affective and motivational processes in GD is still matter of investigation. Among prefrontal areas, orbitofrontal cortex has been indicated as a possible nexus for sensory integration, value-based decision-making and emotional processing, thus contributing to both motivational and affective aspects of cognitive control.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The peripersonal space is described as that area within the boundary between self and non-self. An accurate judgment of peripersonal space boundaries may depend on the capacity to create an organized and structured mental representation that integrates signals from different sensory modalities and brain regions. Empirical evidence suggests that these functions are altered in schizotypy, which is thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the symptoms of schizophrenia in the general population. A number of clinical studies reported that interpersonal interaction and social stimulation have an impact on the onset and progress of schizophrenia.
We conducted a study on personal space in a sample of student screened for schizotypal traits using a paradigm that was not affected by emotional and social interference.
The aim was to evaluate the relationship between personal space and schizotypy traits.
Thirty-four subject recruited for the study completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). According to the SPQ results participants were splitted into two groups (High, Low). Each participant performed a PeriPersonal Space (PPS) task.
Our results show a more extended boundary of the peripersonal space in people with high schizotypy compared to people with low schizotypy even without emotional and social interference.
People with high traits of schizotypy suffer from a difficulty in social integration because of being unable to adapt the social behavior. A better understanding of the mechanisms for abnormal interactive behavior could provide significant valid guidelines for innovating insertion programs that aims to improve social functioning.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Several nutraceuticals have shown interesting clinical results in HF prevention as well as in the treatment of the early stages of the disease, alone or in combination with pharmacological therapy. The aim of the present expert opinion position paper is to summarise the available clinical evidence on the role of phytochemicals in HF prevention and/or treatment that might be considered in those patients not treated optimally as well as in those with low therapy adherence. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular HF treatment options were weighed up and graded according to predefined scales. A systematic search strategy was developed to identify trials in PubMed (January 1970 to June 2019). The terms ‘nutraceuticals’, ‘dietary supplements’, ‘herbal drug’ and ‘heart failure’ or ‘left verntricular dysfunction’ were used in the literature search. The experts discussed and agreed on the recommendation levels. Available clinical trials reported that the intake of some nutraceuticals (hawthorn, coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, d-ribose, carnosine, vitamin D, probiotics, n-3 PUFA and beet nitrates) might be associated with improvements in self-perceived quality of life and/or functional parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output in HF patients, with minimal or no side effects. Those benefits tended to be greater in earlier HF stages. Available clinical evidence supports the usefulness of supplementation with some nutraceuticals to improve HF management in addition to evidence-based pharmacological therapy.
Both blood- and milk-based biomarkers have been analysed for decades in research settings, although often only in one herd, and without focus on the variation in the biomarkers that are specifically related to herd or diet. Biomarkers can be used to detect physiological imbalance and disease risk and may have a role in precision livestock farming (PLF). For use in PLF, it is important to quantify normal variation in specific biomarkers and the source of this variation. The objective of this study was to estimate the between- and within-herd variation in a number of blood metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and serum IGF-1), milk metabolites (free glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, urea, isocitrate, BHB and uric acid), milk enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)) and composite indicators for metabolic imbalances (Physiological Imbalance-index and energy balance), to help facilitate their adoption within PLF. Blood and milk were sampled from 234 Holstein dairy cows from 6 experimental herds, each in a different European country, and offered a total of 10 different diets. Blood was sampled on 2 occasions at approximately 14 days-in-milk (DIM) and 35 DIM. Milk samples were collected twice weekly (in total 2750 samples) from DIM 1 to 50. Multilevel random regression models were used to estimate the variance components and to calculate the intraclass correlations (ICCs). The ICCs for the milk metabolites, when adjusted for parity and DIM at sampling, demonstrated that between 12% (glucose-6-phosphate) and 46% (urea) of the variation in the metabolites’ levels could be associated with the herd-diet combination. Intraclass Correlations related to the herd-diet combination were generally higher for blood metabolites, from 17% (cholesterol) to approximately 46% (BHB and urea). The high ICCs for urea suggest that this biomarker can be used for monitoring on herd level. The low variance within cow for NAGase indicates that few samples would be needed to describe the status and potentially a general reference value could be used. The low ICC for most of the biomarkers and larger within cow variation emphasises that multiple samples would be needed - most likely on the individual cows - for making the biomarkers useful for monitoring. The majority of biomarkers were influenced by parity and DIM which indicate that these should be accounted for if the biomarker should be used for monitoring.
Unbalanced metabolic status in the weeks after calving predisposes dairy cows to metabolic and infectious diseases. Blood glucose, IGF-I, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are used as indicators of the metabolic status of cows. This work aims to (1) evaluate the potential of milk mid-IR spectra to predict these blood components individually and (2) to evaluate the possibility of predicting the metabolic status of cows based on the clustering of these blood components. Blood samples were collected from 241 Holstein cows on six experimental farms, at days 14 and 35 after calving. Blood samples were analyzed by reference analysis and metabolic status was defined by k-means clustering (k=3) based on the four blood components. Milk mid-IR analyses were undertaken on different instruments and the spectra were harmonized into a common standardized format. Quantitative models predicting blood components were developed using partial least squares regression and discriminant models aiming to differentiate the metabolic status were developed with partial least squares discriminant analysis. Cross-validations were performed for both quantitative and discriminant models using four subsets randomly constituted. Blood glucose, IGF-I, NEFA and BHB were predicted with respective R2 of calibration of 0.55, 0.69, 0.49 and 0.77, and R2 of cross-validation of 0.44, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.70. Although these models were not able to provide precise quantitative values, they allow for screening of individual milk samples for high or low values. The clustering methodology led to the sharing out of the data set into three groups of cows representing healthy, moderately impacted and imbalanced metabolic status. The discriminant models allow to fairly classify the three groups, with a global percentage of correct classification up to 74%. When discriminating the cows with imbalanced metabolic status from cows with healthy and moderately impacted metabolic status, the models were able to distinguish imbalanced group with a global percentage of correct classification up to 92%. The performances were satisfactory considering the variables are not present in milk, and consequently predicted indirectly. This work showed the potential of milk mid-IR analysis to provide new metabolic status indicators based on individual blood components or a combination of these variables into a global status. Models have been developed within a standardized spectral format, and although robustness should preferably be improved with additional data integrating different geographic regions, diets and breeds, they constitute rapid, cost-effective and large-scale tools for management and breeding of dairy cows.
The variation of transitional flow features past a micro-ramp is investigated when the Reynolds number is decreased approaching the critical regime. Experiments are conducted in the incompressible flow spanning from supercritical to subcritical roughness-height-based Reynolds number (
, 730, 460 and 320) with tomographic particle image velocimetry. The effect of
on three-dimensional flow behaviour is analysed in a domain encompassing 73 ramp heights in the streamwise direction. Above the critical
, the primary vortex pair and induced central low-speed region in the mean flow field are active over longer range when decreasing
. In the instantaneous flow, at
, the hairpin vortices induced by Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) instability progress gradually from close to the micro-ramp into the region where the overall shear layer is destabilized, indicating the correlation between the K–H instability and the onset of transition. The breakdown of K–H vortices as observed at
, does not occur at lower
, the secondary vortex structures make their first appearance significantly downstream, postponing the formation of sideward disturbances, which destabilize the local shear layer by ejection events. Two major types of eigenmodes with symmetric and asymmetric spatial distribution of velocity fluctuations in the near wake are clearly identified by proper orthogonal decomposition. The symmetric and asymmetric modes correspond to the presence of vortex shedding and a sinuous wiggling motion respectively. It is found that
is the key factor determining the importance of the symmetric mode. At
, the disturbance energy of the symmetric mode decays before the onset of transition, suggesting that it is relatively insignificant in the process. However, decreasing
to 730 and 460, the symmetric mode produces continuous growth of high level disturbance energy, leading to transition.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
The early stage of three-dimensional laminar-to-turbulent transition behind a micro-ramp is studied in the incompressible regime using tomographic particle image velocimetry. Experiments are conducted at supercritical micro-ramp height
based Reynolds number
. The measurement domain encompasses 6 ramp widths spanwise and 73 ramp heights streamwise. The mean flow topology reveals the underlying vortex structure of the wake flow with multiple pairs of streamwise counter-rotating vortices visualized by streamwise vorticity. The primary pair generates a vigorous upwash motion in the symmetry plane with a pronounced momentum deficit. A secondary vortex pair is induced closer to the wall. The tertiary and even further vortices maintain a streamwise orientation, but are produced progressively outwards of the secondary pair and follow a wedge-type pattern. The instantaneous flow pattern reveals that the earliest unstable mode of the wake features arc-like Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) vortices in the separated shear layer. Under the influence of the K–H vortices, the wake exhibits a high level of fluctuations with a pulsatile mode for the streamwise momentum deficit. The K–H vortices are lifted up due to the upwash induced by the quasi-streamwise vortex pair, while they appear to undergo pairing, distortion and finally breakdown. Immediately downstream, a streamwise interval of relatively low vortical activity separates the end of the K–H region from the formation of new hairpin vortices close to the wall. The latter vortex structures originate from the region of maximum wall shear, induced by the secondary vortex pair causing strong ejection events which transport low-speed flow upwards. The whole pattern features a cascade of hairpin vortices along a turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The wedge-shaped cascade signifies the formation of a turbulent wedge. The turbulent properties of the wake are inspected with the spatial distribution of the velocity fluctuations and turbulence production in the developing boundary layer. Inside the wedge region, the velocity fluctuations approach quasi-spanwise homogeneity, indicating the development towards a turbulent boundary layer. The wedge interface is characterized by a localized higher level of velocity fluctuations and turbulence production, associated to the deflection of the shear layer close to the wall and the onset of coherent hairpin vortices inducing localized large-scale ejections.
The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of cow genetic merit on enteric methane (CH4) emission rate. The study used a data set from 32 respiration calorimeter studies undertaken at this Institute between 1992 and 2010, with all studies involving lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cow genetic merit was defined as either profit index (PIN) or profitable lifetime index (PLI), with these two United Kingdom genetic indexes expressing the expected improvement in profit associated with an individual cow, compared with the population average. While PIN is based solely on milk production, PLI includes milk production and a number of other functional traits including health, fertility and longevity. The data set had a large range in PIN (n=736 records, −£30 to +£63) and PLI (n=548 records, −£131 to +£184), days in milk (18 to 354), energy corrected milk yield (16.0 to 45.6 kg/day) and CH4 emission (138 to 598 g/day). The effect of cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) was evaluated using ANOVA and linear mixed modelling techniques after removing the effects of a number of animal and diet factors. The ANOVA was undertaken by dividing each data set of PIN and PLI into three sub-groups (PIN:<£3, £3 to £15 and >£15, PLI:<£23, £23 to £67 and >£67) with these being categorised as low, medium and high genetic merit. Within the PIN and PLI data sets there was no significant differences among the three sub-groups in terms of CH4 emission per kg feed intake or per kg energy corrected milk yield, or CH4 energy (CH4-E) output as a proportion of energy intake. Linear regression using the whole PIN and PLI data sets also demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between either PIN or PLI, and CH4 emission per kg of feed intake or CH4-E output as a proportion of energy intake. These results indicate that cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) has little effect on enteric CH4 emissions as a proportion of feed intake. Instead enteric CH4 production may mainly relate to total feed intake and dietary nutrient composition.
Glasses are recognized as the ideal hosts to incorporate plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs), semiconductor NPs, and luminescent rare-earth (RE3+) ions. This is due to their unique optical properties, stability, absence of high energy bond vibrations and inertness towards the incorporated NPs. However, conventional methods of metal-glass nanocomposite fabrication involve ion-implantation or sputtering and subsequent heat-treatment under H2, UV-light/X-ray/γ- or laser irradiation. They are (i) multi-step, (ii) require expensive set-up, (iii) bear risk of sample damage and (iv) the formation of NPs occurs only in surface layers. Here we develop two novel glass-systems K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 and K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3-ZnO. Using the selective reducing property of the main component Sb2O3 in these hosts, here we demonstrate for the first time the strategy for single-step in-situ fabrication of metal (M0) NPs and RE3+ ions co-embedded within bulk glasses. This new series of novel composites co-embedding metal NPs (elliptical Au, elongated Ag NPs and Aucore-AuAgshell NPs) and RE3+ ions exhibit enhanced upconversion for solar panels, advanced displays and other nanophotonic applications. Metal NPs exhibit surface plasmons resonance results in concentration and enhancement of the local electromagnetic field (LFE) around them. The luminescent RE3+ ion in the vicinity experiences the local field effect. We observe that the LFE effect is stronger on electric dipole transitions of the RE3+ than the magnetic dipole ones. LFE induced by nano Au enhance the (i) 4G7/2 → 4I9/2 540 nm green and 4G7/2 → 4I15/2 650 nm red upconversion emissions of Nd3+ by 9 and 11 fold, (ii) electric dipole 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 636 nm red upconversion of Sm3+ by about 7 fold and (ii) 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 536 nm green and 4F9/2 →4I15/2 645 nm red emissions of Er3+ by 2 and 5 fold respectively. LFE induced by nano Ag enhance both the green and red upconversion emission of Er3+ by 8 fold. The Aucore-AuAgshell NPs enhance the red upconversion of Sm3+ only by 2 fold due to smaller LFE effect of bimetallic NPs. All the Au-doped antimony glasses are dichroic. They transmit the blue light and reflect the brown light, which make them very interesting material comparable to the historic Lycurgus Cup.
We have demonstrated the color conversion of blue micro-LEDs by means of QDs. In this paper, we will present characterizations that highlight this phenomenon. We already obtained conversion with a complete disappearance of the blue incident signal and a strong color saturation from deep blue (x=0,1626; y=0,0144) to deep red (x=0,6743; y=0,3244).
We propose and numerically investigate a tunable metasurface made of an array of graphene ribbons to dynamically control terahertz (THz) wavefront. The metasurface consists of graphene micro ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO2 gap layer. The graphene ribbons are designed to exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO2 layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering up to 2π range for full control of the THz wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle reflected THz beam steering from -53° to +53° with a high reflection efficiency as high as 60% is achieved at 5 THz while the propagation direction of THz beam could be switched within 0.6 ps.
Metamaterial structures composed of ordered arrays of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocavities are able to support strong plasmon and Fano resonances in the optical frequencies, where the appeared Fano dips can be utilized in bio/chemical sensing and spectroscopic purposes with a significant sensitivity. Herein, we utilize two concentric compositional Aluminum (Al) nanoshells (Al/Al2O3) to design nanomatryushka (NM) structures in periodic arrays, where each one of Al NPs is covered by a certain thickness of the oxide layer. Depositing studied Al NM arrays on metasurfaces, we determined the optical response of the metamaterial. It is shown that the proposed structure is able to support multiple strong Fano resonances in the visible spectrum. Evaluating the plasmon response of the metamaterial configuration for the presence of various semiconductor metasurfaces (Silicon and GaP), the quality of Fano dips is analyzed for different regimes. In this method, we measured the accuracy and sensitivity of the metamaterial structure by plotting the linear figure of merit (FoM) and quantifying this parameter.
In the presented work, we have developed VLSI technology processes for new prototype sensors based on the synthesis of boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) and silicon based commercial detectors. The process is based on commercial passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) devices of PD450 and CAM450 types (CANBERRA). A layer of B-NCD of several hundred nanometers thickness and boron concentration up to 1021 atoms/cm3 is grown on the SiOx passivation layer in an ellipsoidal plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor at temperatures from 520-750°C, in hydrogen atmosphere. . The diamond electrode is dry chemically structured and aluminum electrodes are realized before mounting in a three-fold housing for measurements in aqueous solution. The prototype sensors show an alpha spectroscopy resolution of 100 keV for 241Am electroprecipitated from liquid solution.
3D printing is a versatile fabrication method that offers the potential to realize complex 3D devices with metamaterial characteristics in a single process directly from a computer aided design. However, the range of functional devices that might be realized by 3D printing is limited by the current range of materials that are compatible with a given 3D printing process: fused deposition modelling (FDM), which is a widely used 3D printing method, typically employs only common thermoplastics. Here we describe the development of a magnetic feedstock based on polymer-ferrite composite that is compatible with FDM. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by the permittivity and permeability measurement of direct printed blocks and the fabrication of a complex 3D diamond-like lattice structure. The development of printable magnetic composites provides increased design freedom for direct realization of devices with graded electromagnetic properties operating at microwave frequencies.