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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
J. F. Cooper, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, USA,
R. E. Johnson, University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia, USA,
P. Kollmann, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Laurel, Maryland, USA,
E. Roussos, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Studies Göttingen, GERMANY,
E. C. Sittler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
Ring systems around magnetized planets are expected to have varied interactions with the magnetic fields, hot plasma, and energetic particles of the associated magnetospheres. In our solar system all the giant planets, Jupiter to Neptune, have magnetospheres with embedded rings. Each ring system and its associated moons have strong interactions with their radiation environments (the most intense of which is at Jupiter). Such interactions both erode diffuse rings (such as the E ring of Saturn) and supply plasma and energetic particles to the magnetosphere and its radiation belts. Compositional and structural measurements of rings are enabled by these interactions, such as the information obtained by detection of the secondary neutron and gamma-ray emissions produced by galactic cosmic ray (GCR) interactions with the rings. It is also notable that Earth has both a magnetosphere with radiation belts, and an artificial ring system of satellites and debris, that continuously interact. Konradi (1988) even projected that the high energy trapped protons of the inner Van Allen Belt should now be experiencing significant depletion by this interaction, and we will later discuss the possible evidence for this. Magnetized exoplanets with rings would have similar interactions.
The ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn have been explored by multiple spacecraft. The Jovian ring environment was first explored in situ in 1974 by Pioneer 11, which subsequently flew under Saturn's main rings in 1979. After passing through the Saturn ring plane near the G ring in 1981, Voyager 2 encountered Uranus in 1986 and then Neptune in 1989, but in neither case were the rings and arcs of these two ice giant planets traversed. The Galileo Probe passed across the Jovian ring in December 1995 en route to the first direct penetration into Jupiter's atmosphere. The Cassini Orbiter crossed over the Saturn A and B rings in mid-2004 (Figure 14.1) as part of the Saturn Orbital Insertion (SOI). Cassini will again traverse the main rings during its Grand Finale orbit phase many times, crossing the ring plane just inwards of the D ring, prior to final atmospheric entry in 2017. With the exception of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument, turned off in 2012 due to electrical problems, Cassini will continue to operate through the final observations.
Previous research suggests that the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood has negative implications for physical health in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 115), the present research examined the predictive significance of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical/cognitive neglect for multilevel assessments of physical health at midlife (age 37–39 years), including biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, self-reports of quality of health, and a number of health problems. Analyses revealed that childhood physical/cognitive neglect, but not physical or sexual abuse, predicted all three health outcomes in middle adulthood, even when controlling for demographic risk factors and adult health maintenance behaviors. We discuss possible explanations for the unique significance of neglect in this study and suggest future research that could clarify previous findings regarding the differential impact of different types of abuse and neglect on adult health.
A field study was conducted for the 2014 and 2015 growing season in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee to determine the effect of cereal rye and either oats, radish, or annual ryegrass on the control of Amaranthus spp. when integrated with comprehensive herbicide programs in glyphosate-resistant and glufosinate-resistant soybean. Amaranthus species included redroot pigweed, waterhemp, and Palmer amaranth. The two herbicide programs included were: a PRE residual herbicide followed by POST application of foliar and residual herbicide (PRE/POST); or PRE residual herbicide followed by POST application of foliar and residual herbicide, followed by another POST application of residual herbicide (PRE/POST/POST). Control was not affected by type of soybean resistance trait. At the end of the season, herbicides controlled 100 and 96% of the redroot pigweed and Palmer amaranth, respectively, versus 49 and 29% in the absence of herbicides, averaged over sites and other factors. The PRE/POST and PRE/POST/POST herbicide treatments controlled 83 and 90% of waterhemp at the end of the season, respectively, versus 14% without herbicide. Cover crop treatments affected control of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth and soybean yield, only in the absence of herbicides. The rye cover crop consistently reduced Amaranthus spp. density in the absence of herbicides compared to no cover treatment.
Caregiver satisfaction and experience surveys help health professionals to understand, measure, and improve the quality of care provided for patients and their families.
Our aim was to explore caregiver perceptions of the care received from Australian specialist palliative care services.
Caregivers of patients receiving palliative care in services registered with Australia's Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration were invited to participate in a caregiver survey. The survey included the FAMCARE–2 and four items from the Ongoing Needs Identification: Caregiver Profile questionnaire.
Surveys were completed by 1,592 caregivers from 49 services. Most respondents reported high satisfaction and positive experiences. Caregivers receiving care from community-based palliative care teams were less satisfied with the management of physical symptoms and comfort (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI95%] = 0.14, 0.59), with patient psychological care (OR = 0.56; CI95% = 0.32, 0.98), and with family support (OR = 0.52; CI95% = 0.35, 0.77) than caregivers of patients in an inpatient setting. If aged over 60 years, caregivers were less likely to have their information needs met regarding available support services (OR = 0.98; CI95% = 0.97, 0.98) and carer payments (OR = 0.99; CI95% = 0.98, 1.00). Also, caregivers were less likely to receive adequate information about carer payments if located in an outer regional area (OR = 0.41; CI95% = 0.25, 0.64). With practical training, caregivers receiving care from community services reported inadequate information provision to support them in caring for patients (OR = 0.60; CI95% = 0.45, 0.81).
Significance of Results:
While our study identified caregivers as having positive and satisfactory experiences across all domains of care, there is room for improvement in the delivery of palliative care across symptom management, as well as patient and caregiver support, especially in community settings. Caregiver surveys can facilitate the identification and evaluation of both patients' and caregivers' experiences, satisfaction, distress, and unmet needs.
Converging evidence suggests that subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) are associated with biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to objective clinical impairment. However, the sensitivity of SCC reports in early AD may be biased by demographic factors. Here, we sought to investigate whether age, education, and sex influence the relationship between SCC and amyloid (Aβ) burden.
In this cross-sectional study, we examined 252 clinically normal (CN) individuals (57.7% females) enrolled in the Harvard Aging Brain Study, ages 63–90 years (mean 73.7±6) with 6–20 years of education (mean 15.8±3). SCC was assessed as a composite score comprising three questionnaires. Cortical Aβ burden was assessed with Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. A series of linear regression models assessed the potential modifying role of demographic variables with respect to Aβ burden and SCC. A post-hoc mediation model was implemented to further understand the relationship between Aβ burden and SCC via their relationship with education.
Age (β = −0.84, p = 0.36) and sex (β = −0.55, p = 0.22) did not modify the relationship between SCC and Aβ burden. Fewer years of education was correlated with greater SCC (r = −0.12, p = 0.05), but the relationship between Aβ burden and SCC was stronger in those with more education (β = 1.16, p < 0.05). A partial mediation effect was found of Aβ burden on SCC via education (b = −0.12, 95% CI [−0.31, −0.02]).
These findings suggest that the association between SCC and Aβ burden becomes stronger with greater educational attainment. Thus, SCC may be of particular importance in highly educated CN individuals harboring amyloid pathology.
There is increasing interest in the link between early linguistic skills and later language development. In a longitudinal study, we investigated infants’ (a) ability to use speech sound categories to guide word learning in the habituation-based minimal pair switch task, and (b) early productive vocabulary, related to their concurrent and later language task performance. The participants at Phase 1 were 64 infants aged 16–24 months (25 with familial risk of language/speech impairment), followed up at 27 months (Phase 2) and at 3 years (Phase 3). Phase 1 productive vocabulary was correlated with Phase 2 productive vocabulary, and with concurrent and later (Phase 3) tests of language production and comprehension scores (standardized tool), and phonology. Phase 1 switch task performance was correlated with concurrent productive vocabulary and language production scores, but not by Phase 3. However, a combination of early low vocabulary score and a preference for looking at an already-habituated word–object combination in the switch task may show some promise as an identifier for early speech–language intervention. We discuss how these relations can help us better understand the foundations of word learning.
Epidemiological studies suggest a higher prevalence of congenital malformations in children conceived through assisted reproductive technologies. There are a few studies that address CHD specifically and most have examined data from registries. We examined the relationship between CHD and assisted conception using data collected in a specialist paediatric cardiac service in the United Kingdom.
Between April, 2010 and July, 2011, the parents of children attending paediatric cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton Hospital, London, were invited to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the nature of their child’s conception, the route for their original referral, and a number of potential confounding exposures. “Cases” were defined as children diagnosed with one or more carefully defined CHDs and “controls” as those with normal hearts.
Of 894 new attendees with complete data, half of them were cases (n=410, 45.9%). The overall prevalence of assisted conception was 5.4% (n=44). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a non-significant increase in the crude odds for the use of assisted reproduction (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.66–2.22) in this group. After adjustment for gestation, parity, year of birth, and maternal age, the odds ratio reduced (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.48–1.88). Increased rates of assisted conception were observed in a number of CHD subgroups, although no significant differences were found.
These findings do not suggest an overall association between CHD and assisted reproduction in this population.
The inclusion of competitive crop cultivars in crop rotations is an
important integrated weed management (IWM) tool. However, competitiveness is
often not considered a priority for breeding or cultivar selection by
growers. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is often considered a
poor competitor with weeds, but it is not known whether competitiveness
varies among semileafless cultivars. The objectives of this study were to
determine if semileafless field pea cultivars vary in their ability to
compete and/or withstand competition, as well as to identify aboveground
trait(s) that may be associated with increased competitive ability. Field
experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at three locations in western
Canada. Fourteen semileafless field pea cultivars were included in the study
representing four different market classes. Cultivars were grown either in
the presence or absence of model weeds (wheat and canola), and competitive
ability of the cultivars was determined based on their ability to withstand
competition (AWC) and their ability to compete (AC). Crop yield, weed
biomass and weed fecundity varied among sites but not years. Cultivars
exhibited inconsistent differences in competitive ability, although cv.
Reward consistently exhibited the lowest AC and AWC. None of the traits
measured in this study correlated highly with competitive ability. However,
the highest-yielding cultivars generally were those that had the highest AC,
whereas cultivars that ranked highest for AWC were associated with lower
weed fecundity. Ranking the competitive ability of field pea cultivars could
be an important IWM tool for growers and agronomists.
Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)
We discuss the emergence of common mathematical patterns governing the timing and severity of insurgent and terrorist attacks, across geographic scales and including cyberspace. We present mathematical models that provide a generative explanation of these patterns. Despite wide variations in the underlying settings and circumstances, the ubiquity of these patterns suggests there is a common way in which groups of humans fight each other. Our empirical findings follow from the analysis of myriad state-of-the-art datasets with resolution at the level of individual attacks, while our mathematical modelling involves numerical and analytical solutions of fission–fusion dynamics together with progress curve analysis.
This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus×Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140±3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (P<0.01) for MI than CON from day 1 to 51, tended (P=0.09) to be greater for CON than MI from day 112 to 326, while BW on day 326 was similar between treatments. On day 51, MI had greater (P⩽0.01) plasma IGF-I and glucose concentrations, as well as mRNA expression of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase and adipose fatty acid synthase than CON. On days 261 and 325, plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P⩽0.03) in CON than MI. Mean mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-I and adipose peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were greater (P⩽0.05) in MI than CON. No treatment effects were detected for puberty attainment rate. In conclusion, supplementing nursing heifers via creep-feeding for 50 days altered physiological and biochemical variables suggestive of a metabolic imprinting effect, but did not hasten their puberty attainment.
In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.