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Schizophrenia is one of the most severe and chronic forms of mental illness. Quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) test may be useful as a biological marker for the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders of Schizophrenia.
To evaluate reliability and psychiatric clinical value of QRS via thought disorder detection.
We studied 1014 schizophrenic patients, 155 patients with bipolar disorders patient, and 100 normal controls. Thought disorder symptoms of same subjects obtained from QRS test and psychiatrists' diagnoses were compared. Also Thought disorder symptoms of renumbered 65 schizophrenia patient and 100 normal controls were discriminated using QRS test.
Kappa values of thought disorders detection and diagnosed were more than 65% in 6/9 symptoms of schizophrenia, and more than 74% in all 3 symptoms of bipolar disorder. Same consistency could also be seen in Pearson R value, and ROC AUC. In the discriminated analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of delusion, looseness of thought and paralogism thinking detected utilizing QRS are more than 70% same compared with psychiatrists diagnoses.
QRS in thought disorder detection seem to have a predictable value for outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, would become an objective identification and diagnosis instrument, and might promote psychiatric clinical diagnosis.
Many MRI studies have cited major depression, with or without anti-depressive treatment, associated with structural plasticity changing in several brain regions. Few of these studies researched the effect of the anti-depressive treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), on depression.
To assess the influence of ECT on the brain structure change during the treatment process by utilizing the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis.
To determine whether ECT alter brain structure.
We performed HAMD ratings and MRI scans on 12 depressive patients during ECT, analyzing the data by VBM with SPM8 software's family-wise error correction (FWE).
The researchers found volumes changes in white matter in 37 regions between pre-ECT and post-ECT1, but only one region changing between pre-ECT and post-ECT8. Seven regions changing in grey matter between pre-ECT and post-ECT 1⌧but none regions changing between pre-ECT and post-ECT8.
The density changes in several brain regions after a single ECT stimuli, but return to the original level after completing the eighth ECT. Our finding supports that ECT may play a temporary role in treating major depression but do not permanently alter the structures of brain.
Congenital and acquired heart diseases are highly prevalent in developing countries despite limited specialised care. Namibia established a paediatric cardiac service in 2009 with significant human resource and infrastructural constraints. Therefore, patients are referred for cardiac interventions to South Africa.
To describe the diagnoses, clinical characteristics, interventions, post-operative morbidity and mortality, and follow-up of patients referred for care.
Demographics, diagnoses, interventions, intra- and post-operative morbidity and mortality, as well as longitudinal follow-up data of all patients referred to South Africa, were recorded and analysed.
The total cohort constituted 193 patients of which 179 (93%) had CHD and 7% acquired heart disease. The majority of patients (78.8%) travelled more than 400 km to Windhoek before transfer. There were 28 percutaneous interventions. Palliative and definitive surgery was performed in 27 and 129 patients, respectively. Out of 156 patients, 80 (51.3%) had post-operative complications, of which 15 (9.6%) were a direct complication of surgery. Surgical mortality was 8/156 (5.1%, 95% confidence interval 2.2–9.8), with a 30-day mortality of 3.2%. Prolonged ICU stay was associated with a 5% increased risk of death with hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08, p=0.001. Follow-up was complete in 151 (78%) patients for more than 7 years.
Despite the challenges associated with a cardiac programme for referring patients seeking intervention in a neighbouring country and the adverse characteristics of multiple lesions and complexity associated with late presentation, we report good surgical and interventional outcomes. Our goal remains to develop a comprehensive sustainable cardiac service in Namibia.
Watching videotaped personal compulsions together with a therapist might enhance the effect of cognitive–behavioural therapy in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but little is known about how patients experience this.
To performed a qualitative study that describes how watching these videos influences motivation for treatment and whether patients report any adverse events.
In this qualitative study, data were gathered in semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with OCD. The transcripts were coded by two researchers. They used a combination of open and thematic coding and discrepancies in coding were discussed.
The experience of watching videos with personal compulsions helped patients to realise that these compulsions are aberrant and irrational. Patients report increased motivation to resist their OCD and to adhere to therapy. No adverse events were reported.
Videos with personal compulsions create more awareness in patients with OCD that compulsions are irrational, leading to enhanced motivation for treatment.
As part of a national initiative to reduce child obesity, a comprehensive school-based nutrition education intervention to change eating behaviours among grade 4 primary-school students was developed, implemented and evaluated.
The intervention was developed by school staff, with technical assistance from outside health education specialists. The programme included school facility upgrades, school teacher/staff training, curriculum changes and activities for parents. Student scores on nine key eating behaviours were assessed prior to and after the programme. The quality of programme implementation in the schools was monitored by technical assistance teams.
Shandong Province (high household income) and Qinghai Province (low household income), China. Three programme schools and three control schools in each province.
Students in grade 4 (age 8–9 years).
There were significant positive changes in self-reported eating behaviour scores from pre- to post-assessment in programme schools. At post-test students in programme schools had significantly higher scores than students in control schools after controlling for other variables. The programme was more effective in the high-income province. Observations by the technical assistance teams suggested the programme was implemented more completely in Shandong. The teams noted the challenges for implementing and evaluating programmes like these.
This intervention increased healthy eating behaviours among 4th graders in both provinces and had more effect in the more affluent province. Results suggest that a scaled-up initiative using existing school and public health resources could change eating practices in a large population over time. The intervention also provided lessons for implementing and evaluating similar nutrition programmes.
Superior and inferior rice grains have different weights and are located on the upper primary branch and lower secondary branches of the panicle, respectively. To study differences in germination vigour of these two types of grain, a number of factors were investigated from 0 to 48 h of germination. The present study demonstrated that in inferior grains the starch granule structure was looser at 0 h, with full water absorption at 48 h, while in superior grains the structure was tight and dense. Relative water content increased, and dry matter decreased, more rapidly in inferior grains than in superior ones. Abscisic acid and gibberellin levels, as well as α-amylase activity, also changed more rapidly in inferior grains, while soluble sugar content and amylase coding gene expression increased more rapidly in inferior than superior grains during early germination. The expression of OsGAMYB was higher in inferior grains at 24 h but higher in superior grains at 48 h. The phenotypic index of seedlings was higher in seedlings from superior grains at the two-leaf stage. However, the thousand-grain weight and yield per plant in superior and inferior plants showed no significant difference at harvest. The present study indicates that inferior grains germinate faster than superior ones in the early germination stage. Although inferior grains produced weaker seedlings, it is worthwhile using them in rice production due to their comparative yield potential over that of superior grains.
The probability of a Black African finding a matched unrelated donor for a hematopoietic stem cell transplant is minimal due to the high degree of genetic diversity amongst individuals of African origin. This problem could be resolved in part by the establishment of a public cord blood (CB) stem cell bank. The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst women attending antenatal clinics in sub-Saharan Africa together with the risk of mother-to-child transmission increases the risk of transplant transmissible infection. In addition to screening the mother in a period inclusive of 7 days prior to the following delivery, we propose that all CB units considered for storage undergo rigorous and reliable screening for HIV. The Ultrio-plus® assay is a highly specific and sensitive test for detecting HIV, hepatitis-B and hepatitis-C viruses in peripheral blood. We validated the Ultrio-plus® assay for analytical sensitivity in detecting HIV in CB at the level of detection of the assay. Until more comprehensive and sensitive methods are developed, the sensitivity and reliability of the Ultrio-plus® assay suggest that it could be used for the routine screening of CB units in conjunction with currently recommended maternal screening to reduce the risk of transplant transmissible infection.
The outbreaks of varicella occurring in kindergartens and schools are increasingly notified in Shanghai despite the implementation of one-dose varicella vaccination. We analyzed surveillance data on the notified outbreaks of varicella in Minhang District of Shanghai during 2008–2014. A total of 13 511 varicella cases and 154 outbreaks involving 1558 (11·5%) cases were reported. Annual attack rates of outbreak-associated varicella in outbreak classes were 5·5%–12%. The mean age of the outbreak-associated cases was 8·6 ± 3·1 years. Among 1558 outbreak cases, 660 (42·4%) received one-dose varicella vaccine previously. The proportions of breakthrough varicella infection during outbreaks ranged from 21·5% in 2008 to 86·1% in 2014. Annual breakthrough infection rates in outbreak classes ranged from 5·4% to 7·4%. Breakthrough cases as index cases results in 9·7% of outbreaks, and the average duration of outbreaks was significantly longer in vaccinated cases as index cases than in unvaccinated cases as index cases (11·3 ± 5·8 days vs. 8·6 ± 6·1 days, P < 0·05). The mean time of breakthrough infection since vaccination was 6·2 ± 2·3 years (range 0·6–13·4 years). One-dose varicella vaccination cannot prevent the varicella outbreaks in kindergartens and schools. A second dose of varicella vaccine should be recommended for children.
Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB.
IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.
The cycloidal propeller for a Micro-Aerial Vehicle (MAV)-scale cyclogyro in hover was studied using a 2D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver. The effects of the blade dynamic stall, parallel Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI), inflow variation and flow curvature were discussed, based on the results of numerical simulation. The results from the 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation indicated that the blade of the cycloidal rotor is actually performing a pitching oscillation, if observed in a moving reference frame. The dynamic stall vortices shed from the upstream blade cause intense parallel BVI on the downstream blade. The interaction will induce upwash and downwash on the downstream blade. This changes the effective reduced frequency and actually delays the stall of the blade, which is beneficial to the thrust generation. There is also strong downwash in the rotor cage and it changes the inflow velocity experienced by the blade. The downwash and flow curvature can either be beneficial or harmful to the thrust generation. The combined effects of dynamic stall, parallel BVI, inflow variation and flow curvature cause large aerodynamic force peaks and ensure the cycloidal rotors work at very low rotation speeds with high thrust. This guarantees that the cycloidal rotors possess at least the same level of hover efficiency as screw propellers.
Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)-Protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol. However, the mechanism of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism of goose liver was poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway regulating lipid metabolic homeostasis in goose hepatocytes. Goose primary hepatocytes were treated with different PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin and NVP-BEZ235) for 24 h. The results showed that these inhibitors evidently inhibited PI3K-Akt-mTOR downstream signaling. Meanwhile, these PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression and protein content of genes involved in the de novo fatty acid synthesis, while increased the transcriptional and protein level of key factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the reduction of lipids accumulation induced-by inhibiting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was closely linked to the decrease of lipogenesis, the increase of fatty acids oxidation, and the increase of VLDL assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes.
Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.
The association between harmful use of alcohol and HIV infection is well documented. To address this dual epidemic, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) developed and implemented a multi-pronged approach primarily in Namibia and Botswana. We present the approach and preliminary results of the public health investigative and programmatic activities designed, initiated and supported by PEPFAR to combat the harmful use of alcohol and its association as a driver of HIV morbidity and mortality from 2008 to 2013.
PEPFAR supported comprehensive alcohol programming using a matrix model approach that combined the socio-ecological framework and the Alcohol Misuse Prevention and Intervention Continuum. This structure enabled seven component objectives: (1) to quantify harmful use of alcohol through rapid assessments; (2) to develop and evaluate alcohol-based interventions; (3) to promote screening programs and alcohol abuse resource services; (4) to support stakeholder networks; (5) to support policy interventions and (6) structural interventions; and (7) to institutionalize universal prevention messages.
Targeted PEPFAR support for alcohol activities resulted in several projects to address harmful alcohol use and HIV. Components are graphically conceptualized within the matrix model, demonstrating the intersections between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities and individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors. Key initiative successes included leveraging alcohol harm prevention activities that enabled projects to be piloted in healthcare settings, schools, communities, and alcohol outlets. Primary challenges included the complexity of multi-sectorial programming, varying degrees of political will, and difficulties monitoring outcomes over the short duration of the program.
Consumption of palatable foods high in refined carbohydrate has been implicated as a contributing factor to the epidemic levels of obesity. Such foods may disrupt appetite regulation in the hypothalamus through alterations in hunger and satiety signalling. This investigation examined whether a palatable high refined carbohydrate (HRC) diet with the potential to induce obesity was linked to modulation of serotonin and dopamine signalling within the hypothalamus of rats. Male Wistar rats were allowed ad libitum access to either a palatable refined carbohydrate enriched (HRC) diet or standard chow (SC). Visceral fat percentage was used as a measure of the animals' weight gain during the trial. Real-time PCR was applied to determine any variation in levels of expression of the serotonin (Slc6A4 or Sert) and dopamine transporter (Slc6A3 or Dat) genes. After 29 weeks, the HRC group showed a significant increase in visceral fat percentage accompanied by increased expression of Sert. Higher levels of circulating triglycerides were also seen. This investigation determined that a refined high carbohydrate diet is associated with visceral obesity, increased circulating lipids in the blood and distorted serotonergic signalling, which possibly alters satiety and hunger signals.
In this experimental work, the aim is to understand how turbulent thermal flows are enhanced by the destabilization of the boundary layers. Square-stud roughness elements have been added on the bottom plate of a rectangular Rayleigh–Bénard cell in air, to trigger instabilities in the boundary layers. The top plate is kept smooth. The cell proportions are identical to those of the water cell previously operated and described by Salort et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 015112), but six times larger. The very large size of the Barrel of Ilmenau allows detailed velocity fields to be obtained using particle image velocimetry very close to the roughness elements. We found that the flow is quite different at low Rayleigh numbers, where there is no heat-transfer enhancement, and at high Rayleigh numbers where there is a heat-transfer enhancement due to the roughness. Below the transition, the fluid inside the notch, i.e. between the studs, is essentially at rest, though it is slowly recirculating. The velocity profiles on the top of obstacles and in grooves are fairly compatible with those obtained in the smooth case. Above the transition, on the other hand, we observe large incursions of the bulk inside the notch, and the velocity profiles on the top of obstacles are closer to the logarithmic profiles expected in the case of turbulent boundary layers.
This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion treatment for intractable Ménière's disease.
A retrospective analysis of 17 intractable Ménière's disease patients treated with intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion was performed. Treatment efficacy was evaluated according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria. Short and long-term control or improvement rates were calculated after 6 and 24 months, respectively.
Sixteen patients were followed for more than two years. Short- and long-term vertigo control rates were 94 per cent and 81 per cent, respectively; short- and long-term functional activity improvements were 94 per cent and 88 per cent, respectively. The pure tone average was 53 ± 14 dB before treatment, and 50 ± 16 dB at 6 months and 52 ± 20 dB at 24 months after intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion. Tinnitus was controlled or improved in five patients over the two-year follow-up period.
Intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion can effectively control vertigo and improve functional activity in intractable Ménière's disease patients with good hearing preservation. It may therefore be a viable alternative treatment for intractable Ménière's disease.
Difficulties in chemically controlling large crabgrass in corn in South
Africa have recently been attributed to the occurrence of naked crabgrass.
In contrast to large crabgrass, naked crabgrass is not easily controlled
with acetanilide herbicides. Critical periods of weed control (CPWC) for
naked crabgrass in corn was determined in field studies during the 2009/2010
and 2010/2011 growing seasons at two separate localities for an early and
late planting date of corn. Weed-free and weed–crop interference treatments
of increasing duration were maintained at various crop growth stages in the
presence of naked crabgrass. Biomass of naked crabgrass was determined as
dry weight per square meter quadrant, which yielded 428 g m−2 at
Potchefstroom and 594 g m−2 at Wesselsbron. An exponential
regression model was used to determine the CPWC expressed as growing degree
days after crop emergence, on the basis of an estimated 10% relative yield
loss in corn. The onset and ending, as well as the duration of the CPWC,
differed between seasons and localities. At 10% relative yield loss, the
onset of the CPWC ranged between the two-leaf (V2) and six-leaf (V6) stages,
and the ending between the 12-leaf (V12) stage and 2 wk after tasseling (T +
2). The duration of the CPWC ranged between 22 and 80 d for the respective
planting dates, years, and localities. Yield losses ranged from 28 to 82% in
the season-long weedy plots. The shifting of planting dates alone did not
reduce yield losses since the effect of late infestations of naked crabgrass
is significant. Naked crabgrass control from crop emergence is essential,
followed by POST herbicide application during the critical period of weed
control to lower the risk of corn yield losses.
Using transient imaging data from the 2nd and 3rd years of the SDSS supernova survey, we apply various machine learning techniques to the problem of classifying transients (e.g. SNe) from artefacts, one of the first steps in any transient detection pipeline, and one that is often still carried out by human scanners. Using features mostly obtained from PCA, we show that we can match human levels of classification success, and find that a K-nearest neighbours algorithm and SkyNet perform best, while the Naive Bayes, SVM and minimum error classifier have performances varying from slightly to significantly worse.