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Supplementation with copper (Cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its Cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. Here, we studied the effects of Cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (ST) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. Each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of Cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to compare with the control group. Meat traits studied were pH at 24 h postmortem (pH24), colour, chemical composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) composition, amino acid (AA) profile and mineral content. In addition, the effect of Cu supplementation on mineral composition of liver and serum (at 0 and 90 days of treatment) was analysed. No interactions between Cu supplementation and muscle were observed for any trait. Supplementation with Cu increased the protein content of meat (P<0.01). However, Cu content of meat, liver and serum was not modified by supplementation. In fact, Cu content of meat (1.20 and 1.34 mg/kg for Cu supplemented and control deer, respectively) was much lower in both groups than 5 mg/kg of fresh weight allowed legally for food of animal origin. However, bolus of Cu tended to increase the meat content of zinc and significantly increased (P<0.05) the hepatic contents of sodium and lead. Muscles studied had different composition and characteristics. The RA muscle had significantly higher protein content (P<0.001), monounsaturated FA content (P<0.05) and essential/non-essential AA ratio (P<0.01) but lower pH24 (P<0.01) and polyunsaturated FA content (P=0.001) than the ST muscle. In addition, RA muscle had 14.4% less cholesterol (P=0.001) than ST muscle. Also, mineral profile differed between muscles with higher content of iron, significantly higher (P<0.001) content of zinc and lower content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus (P<0.05) for ST muscle compared with RA. Therefore, supplementation with Cu modified deer meat characteristics, but it did not increase its concentration to toxic levels, making it a safe practice from this perspective. Despite the lower content of polyunsaturated FA, quality was better for RA than for ST muscle based on its higher content of protein with more essential/non-essential AA ratio and lower pH24 and cholesterol content.
Early, conforming antibiotic treatment in elderly patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a key factor in the prognosis and mortality. The objective was to examine whether empirical antibiotic treatment was conforming according to the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery guidelines in these patients. Multicentre study in patients aged ⩾65 years hospitalised due to CAP in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. We collected socio-demographic information, comorbidities, influenza/pneumococcal vaccination history and antibiotics administered using a questionnaire and medical records. Bivariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression were made. In total, 1857 hospitalised patients were included, 82 of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment was conforming in 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1–53.8%) of patients without ICU admission and was associated with absence of renal failure without haemodialysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95) and no cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), when the effect of the autonomous community was controlled for. In patients with ICU admission, treatment was conforming in 45.1% (95% CI 34.1–56.1%) of patients and was associated with the hospital visits in the last year (<3 vs. ⩾3, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03–7.12) and there was some evidence that this was associated with season. Although the reference guidelines are national, wide variability between autonomous communities was found. In patients hospitalised due to CAP, health services should guarantee the administration of antibiotics in a consensual manner that is conforming according to clinical practice guidelines.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
Unknown aspects of the initiation, evolution, and associated phenomena of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), together with their capability of perturbing the fragile technological equilibrium on which nowadays society depends, turn them a compelling subject of study. While space weather forecasts are thus far not able to predict when and where in the Sun will the next CME take place, various CME triggering mechanisms have been proposed, without reaching consensus on which is the predominant one. To improve our knowledge in these respects, we investigate a long-duration active region throughout its life, from birth until decay along five solar rotations, in connection with its production of ejective events. We benefit from the wealth of solar remote-sensing data with improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution provided by the ground-breaking space missions STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. During the investigated time interval, which covers the months July – November 2010, the STEREO spacecraft were nearly 180 degrees apart, allowing for the uninterrupted tracking of the active region and its ensuing CMEs. The ejective aspect is examined from multi-viewpoint coronagraphic images, while the dynamics of the active region photospheric magnetic field are inspected by means of SDO/HMI data for specific subintervals of interest. The ultimate goal of this work in progress is to identify common patterns in the ejective aspect that can be connected with the active region characteristics.
While progress has been made on understanding how energy is released and deposited along the solar atmosphere during explosive events such as solar flares, the chromospheric and coronal heating through the sudden release of magnetic energy remain an open problem in solar physics. Recent hydrodynamic models allow to investigate the energy deposition along a flare loop and to study the response of the chromosphere. These results have been improved with the consideration of transport and acceleration of particles along the loop. RHESSI and Fermi/GBM X-ray and gamma-ray observations help to constrain the spectral properties of the injected electrons. The excellent spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of IRIS will also help us to constrain properties of explosive events, such as the continuum emission during flares or their emission in the chromosphere.
The discovery of potential disease-modifying therapies in a neurodegenerative condition like Huntington's disease depends on the availability of sensitive biomarkers that reflect decline across disease stages and that are functionally and clinically relevant.
To quantify macrostructural and microstructural changes in participants with premanifest and symptomatic Huntington's disease over 30 months, and to establish their functional and clinical relevance.
Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study measuring changes in macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) measures in 40 patients with premanifest Huntington's disease, 36 patients with symptomatic Huntington's disease and 36 healthy control participants over three testing sessions spanning 30 months.
Relative to controls, there was greater longitudinal atrophy in participants with symptomatic Huntington's disease in whole brain, grey matter, caudate and putamen, as well as increased caudate fractional anisotropy; caudate volume loss was the only measure to differ between premanifest Huntington's disease and control groups. Changes in caudate volume and fractional anisotropy correlated with each other and neurocognitive decline; caudate volume loss also correlated with clinical and disease severity.
Caudate neurodegeneration, especially atrophy, may be the most suitable candidate surrogate biomarker for consideration in the development of upcoming clinical trials.
We present near-IR spectroscopy of a sample of 30 IRAS sources recently identified as late AGB stars, post-AGB stars or early PNe. The spectra obtained are centred at various wavelengths covering the molecular hydrogen v=1→0 S(1) 2.122 μm and v=2→1 S(1) 2.248 μm emission lines, the recombination lines of hydrogen Brγ 2.166 μm, Pfγ 3.741 μm and Brα 4.052 μm, and the CO[v=2→0] first overtone bandhead at 2.294 μm. As a result of these observations we have increased from 4 to 13 the total number of proto-PNe detected in H2 and we have confirmed that the onset of H2 emission takes place in the post-AGB phase. When the molecular hydrogen is fluorescence-excited the detection rate is found to be directly correlated with the evolutionary stage of the central star, rather than with the nebular morphology. In contrast, shocked-excited H2 is detected only in strongly bipolar proto-PNe, sometimes even at an early stage in the post-AGB phase. The strong correlation of shocked-excited H2 emission with bipolarity found confirms the result previously reported by Kastner et al. (1996) in evolved PNe. However, our results show that this correlation does not exist in the case of fluorescence-excited molecular hydrogen. (to be published in A&A).
The maternal weight gain chart proposed by Rosso and Mardones (RM) was subsequently modified by Atalah et al. (AEA). Both charts are widely used in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to compare birth length (BL) and birth weight (BW) outcomes of both charts. A prospective study of pregnant women and their offspring’s was performed in Santiago, Chile. From a total sample of 27,613 pregnant women a sub-sample of 11,465 term healthy singleton pregnant women was selected for additional analyses. κ statistics was used to study the degree of agreement of both charts in the diagnosis of maternal nutritional status. Obese and underweight women were classified using both standards at the beginning of pregnancy and compared in terms of BL<50 cm, BW<3000 g and BW>4250 g proportions. Sensitivity and specificity values of at risk newborns, whose categories were considered as gold standard, were obtained for obese and underweight women of each chart. There was a moderate agreement in the nutritional classification of these charts. Proportions of BL<50 cm and both BW<3000 g and>4250 g were similar at each nutritional category; however, absolute figures for at risk newborns were much higher in the RM underweight and obese women. The RM chart showed higher sensitivity values than the AEA chart. The higher sensitivity of the RM chart would support its use for prevention purposes. This chart is advisable for Latin American countries and also for most developing countries.
This study aimed to analyse the existence of an association between social class (categorized by type of occupation) and the occurrence of A(H1N1)pmd09 infection and hospitalization for two seasons (2009–2010 and 2010–2011). This multicentre study compared ambulatory A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases with ambulatory controls to measure risk of infection, and with hospitalized A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases to asses hospitalization risk. Study variables were: age, marital status, tobacco and alcohol use, pregnancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, body mass index >40, systemic corticosteroid treatment and influenza vaccination status. Occupation was registered literally and coded into manual and non-manual worker occupational social class groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. There were 720 hospitalized cases, 996 ambulatory cases and 1062 ambulatory controls included in the study. No relationship between occupational social class and A(H1N1)pmd09 infection was found [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74–1·27], but an association (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01–2·31) between occupational class and hospitalization for A(H1N1)pmd09 was observed. Influenza vaccination was a protective factor for A(H1N1)pmd09 infection (aOR 0·41, 95% CI 0·23–0·73) but not for hospitalization. We conclude that manual workers have the highest risk of hospitalization when infected by influenza than other occupations but they do not have a different probability of being infected by influenza.
In the developing of scaffolds for cell culture, a large number of architectures with different combinations of properties should be tested to determine the best. This can be costly in time, money and materials. In this paper we have proposed an optimization model that aims to maximize the growth of osteoblasts on polymeric scaffolds by regulating their properties and architecture. Based on the optimization model it was implemented a genetic algorithm to calculate the architecture and properties of the scaffolds. The fiber diameter, pore diameter, porosity, Young's modulus and contact angle of the scaffolds were calculated through four electrospinning parameters: voltage (kV), concentration (% w/v), flow rate (ml/h) and distance (cm). A fitness value was assigned to each scaffold and the highest one was chosen as the best condition for osteoblast growth. The preliminary results obtained by the Genetic Algorithm were consistent with the tendencies reported experimentally in other studies. Also, the methodology established here can be easily adapted to different types of polymers and cells. Finally, the optimization model can be applied not only by means of heuristic method, like a Genetic Algorithm, but also by exact methods.
Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations show that the baryonic elements that at z = 0 form the stellar populations of late-type galaxies (LTGs), display, at high z, a gaseous web-like organization, where different singular structures (walls, filaments, nodes) show up. The analysis also shows that the spheroid-to-be elements are the first to be involved in the singular structures, while thick and thin disk-to-be elements chronologically follow them. We discuss how these differences at high z can explain the differences among these three components at z = 0.
We present the first results of a comprehensive photometric O-star survey performed with a robotic twin refractor at the Universitätssternwarte Bochum located near Cerro Armazones in Chile. For three high-mass stars, Pismis 24-1, CPD − 51∘ 8946, and HD 319702, we determined the period through the Lafler-Kinman algorithm and modelled the light curves within the framework of the Roche geometry. We introduce a newly discovered eclipsing high-mass binary HD 319702 that shows well-defined eclipses favouring a detached configuration with a period of 2.0 days and an orbital inclination of 67.5∘. Combining our photometric result with the primary spectral type O8 III(f) (T1 = 34 000 K) we derive a temperature of T2 = 25 200 K for the secondary component.