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The Vaigat Iceberg-Microbial Oil Degradation and Archaeological Heritage Investigation (VIMOA) project records the results of archaeological survey of five sites in Greenland that are threatened by extreme weather conditions related to climate change. The project demonstrates the advantages of collaboration between archaeologists and natural scientists, and provides a repository of data to help preserve the archaeological record.
Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the most frequent cause of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. A few reports have suggested that pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection. We sought to determine the association between the pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and clinical outcomes.
We retrospectively reviewed 154 children admitted with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis who had an echocardiography performed during the admission. The association between pulmonary hypertension and clinical outcomes including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, prolonged ICU stay (>10 days), tracheal intubation, and need of high frequency oscillator ventilation was evaluated.
Echocardiography detected pulmonary hypertension in 29 patients (18.7%). Pulmonary hypertension was observed more frequently in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) (n = 11/33, 33%), chronic lung disease of infancy (n = 12/25, 48%), prematurity (<37 weeks gestational age, n = 17/59, 29%), and Down syndrome (n = 4/10, 40%). The presence of pulmonary hypertension was associated with morbidity (p < 0.001) and mortality (p = 0.02). However, in patients without these risk factors (n = 68), pulmonary hypertension was detected in five patients who presented with shock or poor perfusion. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension (OR = 5.9, 95% CI 2.2–16.3, p = 0.0005). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary hypertension is associated with ICU admission (OR = 6.4, 95% CI 2.2–18.8, p = 0.0007), intubation (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.8–12.3, p = 0.002), high frequency oscillator ventilation (OR = 8.4, 95% CI 2.95–23.98, p < 0.0001), and prolonged ICU stay (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.0–11.7, p = 0.0004).
Pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus infection was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension detected during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Routine echocardiography is not warranted for previously healthy, haemodynamically stable patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.
The aim of the study was to investigate any association between extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) and intestinal flora of <30-week-old preterm infants. A total of 59 preterm infants were assigned to EUGR (n=23) and non-EUGR (n=36) groups. Intestinal bacteria were compared by using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial rRNA. The total abundance of bacteria in 344 genera (7568 v. 13,760; P<0.0001) and 456 species (10,032 v. 18,240; P<0.0001) was significantly decreased in the EUGR group compared with the non-EUGR group. After application of a multivariate logistic model and adjusting for potential confounding factors, as well as false-discovery rate corrections, we found four bacterial genera with higher and one bacterial genus with lower abundance in the EUGR group compared with the control group. In addition, the EUGR group showed significantly increased abundances of six species (Streptococcus parasanguinis, Bacterium RB5FF6, two Klebsiella species and Microbacterium), but decreased frequencies of three species (one Acinetobacter species, Endosymbiont_of_Sphenophorus_lev and one Enterobacter_species) compared with the non-EUGR group. Taken together, there were significant changes in the intestinal microflora of preterm infants with EUGR compared to preterm infants without EUGR.
The Main Karoo Basin of South Africa contains a near-continuous sequence of continental deposition spanning ~80 Myr from the mid-Permian to the Early Jurassic. The terrestrial vertebrates of this sequence provide a high-resolution stratigraphic record of regional origination and extinction, especially for the mid–late Permian. Until now, data have only been surveyed at coarse stratigraphic resolution using methods that are biased by nonuniform sampling rates, limiting our understanding of the dynamics of diversification through this important time period. Here, we apply robust methods (gap-filler and modified gap-filler rates) for the inference of patterns of species richness, origination rates, and extinction rates to a subset of 1321 reliably-identified fossil occurrences resolved to approximately 50 m stratigraphic intervals. This data set provides an approximate time resolution of 0.3–0.6 Myr and shows that extinction rates increased considerably in the upper 100 m of the mid-Permian Abrahamskraal Formation, corresponding to the latest part of the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ). Origination rates were only weakly elevated in the same interval and were not sufficient to compensate for these extinctions. Subsampled species richness estimates for the lower part of the overlying Teekloof Formation (corresponding to the Pristerognathus and Tropidostoma AZs) are low, showing that species richness remained low for at least 1.5–3 million years after the main extinction pulse. A high unevenness of the taxon abundance–frequency distribution, which is classically associated with trophically unstable postextinction faunas, in fact developed shortly before the acme of elevated extinction rates due to the appearance and proliferation of the dicynodont Diictodon. Our findings provide strong support for a Capitanian (“end-Guadalupian”) extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates and suggest that further high-resolution quantitative studies may help resolve the lack of consensus among paleobiologists regarding this event.
Background: A need exists to characterise the long-term cognitive outcomes in patients who recovered from autoimmune encephalitis and to identify the modifiable factors associated with improved outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis in our outpatient autoimmune encephalitis clinic over a 5-year period, where the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is routinely administered. Results: In total, 21 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 52% had persistent cognitive impairment at their latest follow-up (median delay to testing=20 months, range 13-182). Visuospatial and executive abilities, language, attention, and delayed recall were predominantly affected. Patients with status epilepticus at presentation had lower total MoCA scores at their last follow-up (median total score 21, range 15-29) compared with patients without status epilepticus at presentation (median total score 27.5, range 21-30; r2=0.366, p=0.004). Patients who experienced delays of more than 60 days from symptom onset to initiation of treatment (either immunosuppression or tumour removal) were more likely to have a MoCA score compatible with cognitive impairment at their last follow-up (r2=0.253, p=0.0239; z-score=−2.01, p=0.044). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the MoCA may be used to evaluate cognition in recovering patients with autoimmune encephalitis. Delays to treatment shorter than 60 days and absence of status epilepticus at onset were associated with better performance on the MoCA obtained more than 1 year after symptom onset, and may predict better long-term cognitive outcomes.
Cucumber powdery mildew is a destructive foliar disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii (formerly known as Sphaerotheca fuliginea) that substantially damages the yield and quality of crops. The control of this disease primarily involves the use of chemical pesticides that cause serious environmental problems. Currently, numerous studies have indicated that some plant extracts or products potentially have the ability to act as natural pesticides to control plant diseases. It has been reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and its extract can be used in agriculture due to their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. However, the most effective fungicidal component of this plant is still unknown. In the current study, the crude extract of C. longa L. was found to have a fungicidal effect against P. xanthii. Afterwards, eight fractions (Fr.1–Fr.8) were gradually separated from the crude extract by column chromatography. Fraction 1 had the highest fungicidal effect against this pathogen among the eight fractions. The active compound, (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone, was separated from Fr 1 by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified based on its 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR spectrum data. The EC50 value of (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone was found to be 28.7 µg/ml. The compound also proved to have a curative effect. This is the first study to report that the compound (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone has an effect on controlling this disease. These results provide a basis for developing a new phytochemical fungicide from C. longa L. extract.
In vivo and in vitro trials were conducted to assess the effects of tributyrin (TB) supplementation on short-chain fatty acid (SFCA) concentrations, fibrolytic enzyme activity, nutrient digestibility and methanogenesis in adult sheep. Nine 12-month-old ruminally cannulated Small Tail ewes (initial body weight 55 ± 5.0 kg) without pregnancy were used for the in vitro trial. In vitro substrate made to offer TB at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg on a dry matter (DM) basis was incubated by ruminal microbes for 72 h at 39°C. Forty-five adult Small Tail ewes used for the in vivo trial were randomly assigned to five treatments with nine animals each for an 18-d period according to body weight (55 ± 5.0 kg). Total mixed ration fed to ewes was also used to offer TB at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg on a DM basis. The in vitro trial showed that TB supplementation linearly increased apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre, and enhanced gas production and methane emissions. The in vivo trial showed that TB supplementation decreased DM intake, but enhanced ruminal fermentation efficiency. Both in vitro and in vivo trials showed that TB supplementation enhanced total SFCA concentrations and carboxymethyl cellulase activity. The results indicate that TB supplementation might exert advantage effects on rumen microbial metabolism, despite having an enhancing effect on methanogenesis.
Whether there are distinct subtypes of schizophrenia is an important issue to advance understanding and treatment of schizophrenia.
To understand and treat individuals with schizophrenia, the aim was to advance understanding of differences between individuals, whether there are discrete subtypes, and how fist-episode patients (FEP) may differ from multiple episode patients (MEP).
These issues were analysed in 687 FEP and 1880 MEP with schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for (PANSS) schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic medication for 6 weeks.
The seven Negative Symptoms were correlated with each other and with P2 (conceptual disorganisation), G13 (disturbance of volition), and G7 (motor retardation). The main difference between individuals was in the cluster of seven negative symptoms, which had a continuous unimodal distribution. Medication decreased the PANSS scores for all the symptoms, which were similar in the FEP and MEP groups.
The negative symptoms are a major source of individual differences, and there are potential implications for treatment.
A new method, called Cloud of Points (COP) Reconstruction, is proposed in the present work to extend the meshfree method to simulate viscous flows. With the characters of viscous flows, the anisotropic COP structure is distributed in boundary layer. The proposed method can improve the anisotropic COP structure to isotropic COP structure and reduce the condition number of the least square coefficient matrix for conventional meshfree method. The values of the new reconstructed points are calculated by the Lagrange interpolation. The accuracy and the robustness of the presented meshfree solver are demonstrated on a number of standard test cases, including the functions with analytical gradients and the viscous flows past NACA0012 airfoil. The comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data and other numerical simulation data are also investigated.
The difficulties in the clinical antidepressant treatment lead to the pursuing of more effective methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Mixed findings from DLPFC targeted TMS result in the exploration of optimal stimulation location. Disturbed function of obitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been indicated in depression, which is involving in the remission of depression. However, whether it could be a more specific treating target is not tested. Simultaneously, disturbed reward network (RN) has been confirmed in depression, however, whether this could be improved by TMS treatment remains unclear.
Fourteen patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were allocated in a four-week course of OFC targeted TMS. Motivated by the literature, before and after the treatment, the function connectivity of RN with the seed of ventral striatum was conducted. The results were also compared with the data from 33 healthy controls.
The OFC targeted TMS improved the clinical depression significantly and enhanced the function connectivity within the RN effectively. Specifically, lower baseline dorsolateral striatum connectivity predicted strong therapeutic effect of TMS on depression, while lower baseline insula connectivity predicted weak therapeutic effect on depression.
The findings offer the first experimental evidence of the therapeutic effect of OFC targeted TMS on clinical depression, enhanced function connectivity within RN might be the potential neural mechanism (Fig. 1). Lower dorsolateral striatum connection might be a reliable neural biomarker of strong responding for TMS treatment, which helps to identify the patients who will be cured by TMS most effectively.
To investigate the effect of saikosaponin B2 on the damage of cultured SH-SY5Y cells.
10% calf serum including volume fraction 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 saikosaponin B2 (10−4mol·L−1) were added respectively into the SH-SY5Y cells, which were then treated with 140 μmol· L−1 hydrogen peroxide(H2O2). 10% calf serum group and blank serum without H2O2-treated group were as the model group and the control group. The effect of saikosaponin B2 was observed by morphological identification, colorimetric MTT assay.
Both saikosaponin B2 of 10−6mol·L−1 and 2 × 10−6mol·L−1 can relieve the damage of SH-SY5Y cells and increase the survival of the cells.
saikosaponin B2 can protect the cultured SH-SY5Y cells from damage induced by H2O2.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To investigate the effect of Qing Huan Ling and (or) risperidone on activity and preferences behavior of the hypoglutamatergic schizophrenia model in mice.
Seventy kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, one group as placebo group. The rest groups intraperitoneal injection MK-801 continuously 14 day, then randomly numbered: model group, Qing Huan Ling group, risperidone groupand Qing Huan Ling combined risperidone group. Intragastric administration give corresponding drugs for each group one month, at the same time observe high activities and changes in the preferences of five groups.
Compared with the blank group, activity of the rest model groups induced by MK-801 was increased (P < 0.05). After intragastric administration one month, model groups of high activity was decreased, especially risperidone combined Qing Huan Ling group. There was no statistical meaning in inquiry activity of five groups (P > 0.05). Compared with model group, latent period of step-through test was prolonged 35.5 s (P < 0.05), of step-down test was prolonged 11.4 s in risperidone combined Qing Huan Ling group.
The combination of Qing Huan Ling and risperidone can suppress the high activity; also can protect harmed memory of the preference behavior in the hypoglutamatergic schizophrenia model in mice.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Rural-to-urban migrant workers are a large marginalised population in urban China. Prevalence estimates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in previous studies varied widely and very few studies have investigated migration-related factors of CMHPs in migrant workers. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CMHPs among Chinese migrant workers.
A random sample of 3031 migrant workers of ten manufacturing factories in Shenzhen, China, completed a standardised questionnaire containing socio-demographic and migration-related variables and the Chinese 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ-12 score of three or higher was used to denote the presence of CMHPs.
The prevalence of CMHPs was 34.4% in Chinese migrant workers. In multiple logistic regression, risk factors for CMHPs included being 16–25 years old (odd ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.12), being 26–35 years old (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.75), low monthly income (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), poor living condition (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.54), physical illness in the past 2 weeks (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43, 2.05), having worked in many cities (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74), infrequently visiting hometown (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22, 1.99), poor Mandarin proficiency (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01), a low level of perceived benefits of migration (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14, 1.55) and working more than 8 h/day (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14, 1.70).
CMHPs are very prevalent among Chinese migrant workers. Given the large number of Chinese migrant workers, there is an urgent need to address the mental health burden of China's migrant worker population.
A truthful snapshot of horse welfare conditions is a prerequisite for predicting the impact of any actions intended to improve the quality of life of horses. This can be achieved when welfare information, gathered by different assessors in diverse geographical areas, is valid, comparable and collected in a harmonized way. This paper aims to present the first outcomes of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) approach: the results of on-farm assessment and a reliable and harmonized data collection system. A total of 355 sport and leisure horses, stabled in 40 facilities in Italy and in Germany, were evaluated by three trained assessors using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for horses. The AWINHorse app was used to collect, store and send data to a common server. Identified welfare issues were obesity, unsatisfactory box dimensions, long periods of confinement and lack of social interaction. The digitalized data collection was feasible in an on-farm environment, and our results suggest that this approach could prove useful in identifying the most relevant welfare issues of horses in Europe or worldwide.
Although acknowledged to be variable and subjective, manual annotation of cryo-electron tomography data is commonly used to answer structural questions and to create a “ground truth” for evaluation of automated segmentation algorithms. Validation of such annotation is lacking, but is critical for understanding the reproducibility of manual annotations. Here, we used voxel-based similarity scores for a variety of specimens, ranging in complexity and segmented by several annotators, to quantify the variation among their annotations. In addition, we have identified procedures for merging annotations to reduce variability, thereby increasing the reliability of manual annotation. Based on our analyses, we find that it is necessary to combine multiple manual annotations to increase the confidence level for answering structural questions. We also make recommendations to guide algorithm development for automated annotation of features of interest.
To observe the effect of Qing Huan Ling and (or) risperidone on locomotor activity and explorative behavior of schizophrenia mice model by open field test.
Seventy kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, one group as blank group. The rest groups ip MK-801 continuously 14 day, then randomly numbered: model group, risperidone group, Qing Huan Ling group and risperidone combined Qing Huan Ling group. Ig give corresponding drugs for each group 4 weeks, observe the change of locomotor activity and explorative behavior by open field test.
After Ig 4 weeks, compared with the blank group, there were no obvious difference in locomotor activity and explorative behavior between risperidone group, Qing Huan Ling group and the combined group. Compared with the model group, risperidone had statistics meaning in the repression of explorative behavior (P < 0.05),the combined group has statistics meaning in the repression of locomotor activity and explorative behavior (78.92 ± 36.18 m vs. 186.92 ± 41.08 m, P < 0.01).
Qing Huan Ling regulate the central nervous system of schizophrenia mice model; when combined with risperidone, it restrain the central nervous system of schizophrenia mice model and the effect is stronger than risperidone alone.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.