The aim of this work was to study the effects of soluble aluminium on the morphology and growth of the adventitious root system, aerial biomass and grain yield of maize (Zea mays). The analysis focuses on two hybrid cultivars (Al-sensitive HS7777 and Al-tolerant C525M). Experiments were carried out in the field and in a rhizotron in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. In the field, four levels of lime application were used: T0 = 0 t ha−1, T1 = 3.5 t ha−1, T2 = 7.0 t ha−1, and T3 = 10.5 t ha−1. Two levels were used in a rhizotron: T0 and T3. In the surface horizon (0–15 cm), the Al concentrations of the soil solution were: T0 = 15, T1 = 5.1, T2 = 4.4, and T3 = 3.1 μM. In the field, neither Al concentration in the soil solution nor cultivar affected the number of primary adventitious roots per internode or the total number of primary adventitious roots. However, root diameter, plant population and grain yield of the two cultivars confirmed the differences in Al tolerance between them. Al was observed to have an adverse effect on the grain yield from C525M, while low yields from HS7777, at all levels of Al, precluded any response to liming. In the rhizotron studies, Al concentration and cultivar affected the root branching and total root length. Cultivar C525M had more branches and total root length than HS7777, mainly at low concentrations of soil Al solution, leading to greater spatial colonization of the soil down to 0.9 m depth.