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The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
Flutter suppression is an important measure to improve fatigue life and enhance the performance of aircraft in modern aircraft design. In order to design more effective controllers for flutter suppression with high efficiency, an efficient reduced-order framework for active/passive hybrid flutter suppression is proposed. The traditional CFD-based ROMs have been successfully applied to active flutter suppression with high accuracy and efficiency. But, when a structure modification is made such as in aeroelastic tailoring and aeroelastic structural optimisation, the structural model should be updated, and the expensive, time-consuming CFD-based ROMs have to be reconstructed; such a process is impractical for passive flutter suppression. To overcome the realistic challenge, an efficient reduced-order framework for active/passive hybrid flutter suppression is proposed by extending an efficient aeroelastic CFD-based POD/ROM which we have developed. The proposed framework is demonstrated and evaluated using an improved AGARD 445.6 wing model. The results show that the proposed framework can accurately predict the aeroelastic response for active/passive hybrid flutter suppression with high efficiency. It provides a powerful tool for active/passive hybrid flutter suppression, and therefore, is ideally suited to design more effective controllers, and may have the potential to reduce the overall cost of aircraft design.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Despite a disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on minority and under-resourced communities, nearly all COVID-19 resources have only been online in English. A statewide coalition of community and academic partners used community-engaged strategies to provide tailored outreach to diverse populations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The STOP COVID-19 CA statewide team had a workgroup focused on communications. Members of this group represented different sectors, racial/ethnic groups, disciplines, and regions across the state. They had regular meetings to discuss and strategize how to overcome the impact of historic and structural racism on access to COVID-19 resources, including testing, vaccines, and protective equipment. The team also shared regular updates about changes in community concerns and needs as well as new, tailored resources. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Together, the team has been able to reach diverse populations across the state, including providing information about COVID-19 in multiple languages and formats, from radio to virtual town halls to local health fairs. The multiple sites also increased access to vaccines and testing through trusted community leaders and locations, including church-based locations to bringing vaccines and testing directly to workplaces. These community pop-up vaccination sites have helped to vaccinate large numbers of diverse populations, some of whom were initially unsure about getting the vaccine, which has helped to reduce the gaps in community vaccination rates by race/ethnicity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This network of community-engaged strategies utilized for rapid COVID-19 response could also be used to for responses to future public health emergencies, addressing chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension), or even other complex issues that affect society and health (e.g., climate change).
Shared decision making is the process in which the person, their representative, and health care professional share information with each other, participate in the decision-making process, and agree on a course of action. At present, very little is known about shared decision making (SDM) in medication management from the perspective of long-term care facility residents. The objective of this study was to identify residents’ beliefs, motivation, and aspects of the environment that facilitate or impede SDM.
A qualitative study was conducted using face-to-face semi-structured interviews, and data analysis was carried out using a thematic approach.
Six long-term care facilities in Sydney, Australia.
Enablers to resident involvement in SDM were resident beliefs in exercising their right to take part in medication-related decisions, preference to maintain control over decisions, and motivation to raise concern about medication. Residents were not motivated to be involved in SDM if they believed they had no control over life circumstance, perceived that medications were necessary, or experienced no problems with their medications. Participation in SDM was hindered by limitations in opportunities for resident involvement, engagement with staff and primary care physician to discuss issues related to medications, and continuity of care with their regular physician.
This study highlights that the residents’ beliefs in control over decisions and concerns about medication are a significant function of the SDM process. It is important that residents are given the choice to take part in SDM, their beliefs and values regarding SDM are understood, and the culture of the care facility respects residents’ right to participate in SDM.
Dementia assessment includes cognitive and behavioral testing with informant verification. Conventional testing is resource-intensive, with uneven access. Online unsupervised assessments could reduce barriers to risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between informant-rated behavioral changes and participant-completed neuropsychological test performance in older adults, both measured remotely via an online unsupervised platform, the Brain Health Registry (BHR).
Observational cohort study.
Community-dwelling older adults participating in the online BHR. Informant reports were obtained using the BHR Study Partner Portal.
The final sample included 499 participant–informant dyads.
Participants completed online unsupervised neuropsychological assessment including Forward Memory Span, Reverse Memory Span, Trail Making B, and Go/No-Go tests. Informants completed the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C) via the BHR Study Partner portal. Cognitive performance was evaluated in MBI+/− individuals, as was the association between cognitive scores and MBI symptom severity.
Mean age of the 499 participants was 67, of which 308/499 were females (61%). MBI + status was associated with significantly lower memory and executive function test scores, measured using Forward and Reverse Memory Span, Trail Making Errors and Trail Making Speed. Further, significant associations were found between poorer objectively measured cognitive performance, in the domains of memory and executive function, and MBI symptom severity.
These findings support the feasibility of remote, informant-reported behavioral assessment utilizing the MBI-C, supporting its validity by demonstrating a relationship to online unsupervised neuropsychological test performance, using a previously validated platform capable of assessing early dementia risk markers.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, with its impact on our way of life, is affecting our experiences and mental health. Notably, individuals with mental disorders have been reported to have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Personality traits could represent an important determinant of preventative health behaviour and, therefore, the risk of contracting the virus.
We examined overlapping genetic underpinnings between major psychiatric disorders, personality traits and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to explore the genetic correlations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility with psychiatric disorders and personality traits based on data from the largest available respective genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In two cohorts (the PsyCourse (n = 1346) and the HeiDE (n = 3266) study), polygenic risk scores were used to analyse if a genetic association between, psychiatric disorders, personality traits and COVID-19 susceptibility exists in individual-level data.
We observed no significant genetic correlations of COVID-19 susceptibility with psychiatric disorders. For personality traits, there was a significant genetic correlation for COVID-19 susceptibility with extraversion (P = 1.47 × 10−5; genetic correlation 0.284). Yet, this was not reflected in individual-level data from the PsyCourse and HeiDE studies.
We identified no significant correlation between genetic risk factors for severe psychiatric disorders and genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility. Among the personality traits, extraversion showed evidence for a positive genetic association with COVID-19 susceptibility, in one but not in another setting. Overall, these findings highlight a complex contribution of genetic and non-genetic components in the interaction between COVID-19 susceptibility and personality traits or mental disorders.
Previously reported associations between oral contraceptives (OCs) use and depression have been conflicting. Insight into the impact of analytical choices on the association may help to reconcile previous heterogeneous findings.
We aimed to examine the association between adolescent OC use and subsequent depression risk in early adulthood analyzing all theoretically justifiable models.
Women from the prospective cohort study Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) were included in this study. All justifiable associations between adolescent OC use (ages 16-19 years) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in early adulthood (ages 20-25 years) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV oriented Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-Report and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were tested.
A total of 818 analytical models were analyzed in 534 adolescent OC users and 191 nonusers. Overall, there was a tentative association of adolescent OC use and an episode of MDD in early adulthood (median odds ratio [OR] median=1.41; ORmin=1.08; ORmax=2.18, permutation testing p-value 1 = .052, and p-value 2 = .046), which was primarily driven by the group of young women with no history of MDD (ORmedian=1.72; ORmin=1.21; ORmax=2.18, both permutation testing p-values = .02).
Adolescent OC use was associated with an increased risk for experiencing an episode of MDD, but only among women with no history of MDD in adolescence. Understanding the potential side effects of OCs will help women and their doctors make informed choices when deciding among possible methods of birth control.
In Taiwan, residents of mental health halfway houses (MHHH) receive psychiatric rehabilitation services, aiming for independent living and community integration. Research is yet to investigate how MHHH may effectively assist residents’ discharge in this cultural context.
To examine the processes of assessment, preparation, assistance, and appraisal of discharge from MHHH staff’s perspectives.
Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 halfway house staff members. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed with dimensional analysis procedures of the grounded theory methodology.
Successful discharge is a personalized process with integrated approaches addressing three essential factors: (a) regular community involvement, (b) the residents’ capacity to work, and (c) the family’s acceptance and support. Staff supported individual residents’ community involvement by attending to residents’ personal interests, resource availability, financial concerns, and transportation. Moreover, staff provided rehabilitation trainings to develop work capacity. However, residents’ motivation and functioning as well as job opportunities might affect their employment. Finally, in Taiwan, residents were rarely discharged without their family members’ consent because residents tended to co-reside with their family after discharge or rely on family support while living separately. Staff worked to engage families, which was influenced by family relationship quality, past traumatic events, financial concerns, capacity to assist the resident, and/or the resident’s ability to assist with family affairs.
To achieve successful discharges, MHHH staff need to assist each resident by developing an integrated plan to enhance conditions of the aforementioned factors, including strategies for different familial situations to garner family support in this cultural context.
Considering the shortcomings of current methods for real-time resolution of two-aircraft flight conflicts, a geometric optimal conflict resolution and recovery method based on the velocity obstacle method for two aircraft and a cooperative conflict resolution method for multiple aircraft are proposed. The conflict type was determined according to the relative position and velocity of the aircraft, and a corresponding conflict mitigation strategy was selected. A resolution manoeuvre and a recovery manoeuvre were performed. On the basis of a two-aircraft conflict resolution model, a multi-aircraft cooperative conflict resolution game was constructed to identify an optimal solution for maximising group welfare. The solution and recovery method is simple and effective, and no new flight conflicts are introduced during track recovery. For multi-aircraft conflict resolution, an equilibrium point that maximises the welfare function of the group was identified, and thus, an optimal strategy for multi-aircraft conflict resolution was obtained.
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in serum biomarkers of acute brain injury, including white matter and astrocyte injury during chronic foetal hypoxaemia. We have previously shown histopathological changes in myelination and neuronal density in fetuses with chronic foetal hypoxaemia at a level consistent with CHD.
Mid-gestation foetal sheep (110 ± 3 days gestation) were cannulated and attached to a pumpless, low-resistance oxygenator circuit, and incubated in a sterile fluid environment mimicking the intrauterine environment. Fetuses were maintained with an oxygen delivery of 20–25 ml/kg/min (normoxemia) or 14–16 ml/kg/min (hypoxaemia). Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels in the two groups were assessed by ELISA at baseline and at 7, 14, and 21 days of support.
Based on overlapping 95% confidence intervals, there were no statistically significant differences in either Myelin Basic Protein or Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels between the normoxemic and hypoxemic groups, at any time point. No statistically significant correlations were observed between oxygen delivery and levels of Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein.
Chronic foetal hypoxaemia during mid-gestation is not associated with elevated serum levels of acute white matter (Myelin Basic Protein) or astrocyte injury (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein), in this model. In conjunction with our previously reported findings, our data support the hypothesis that the brain dysmaturity with impaired myelination found in fetuses with chronic hypoxaemia is caused by disruption of normal developmental pathways rather than by direct cellular injury.
Although rare, coronary artery anomalies can have significant clinical implications. Total anomalous origin of the coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery (TCAPA) represents a rare subtype of coronary artery anomaly for which little is known. The aim of this review was to characterise the presentation, utilised diagnostic modalities, associated cardiac lesions, and treatment strategies in patients with TCAPA.
A systematic review was performed for cases of TCAPA using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Keywords searched included “total anomalous origin of the coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery,” “single ostium anomalous coronary artery from the pulmonary artery,” and “anomalous origin of both coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery.”
Fifty-seven cases of TCAPA were identified in 50 manuscripts. Fifty-eight per cent of patients were male and the median age at presentation was 10 days (mean 1.71 ± 6.6 years, range 0 days–39 years). Most patients were symptomatic at the time of presentation; cyanosis (n = 22) and respiratory distress (n = 14) were the most common symptoms. Cases were most commonly diagnosed at autopsy (n = 26, 45.6%), but operative intervention was pursued in 22 cases (45.6%); aortic re-implantation (n = 14) and a Takeuchi-type repair (n = 7) were the most common routes of repair.
The clinical presentation of patients with TCAPA was found to be variable, likely related to the presence of associated cardiac lesions. TCAPA should be considered in patients with suspected anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery for the serious consequences that can occur if not promptly corrected.
Separating and reattaching turbulent flows induced by a forward-facing step subjected to an incoming fully developed turbulent channel flow are studied using direct numerical simulation. The step height is one quarter of the channel height, and the Reynolds number based on friction velocity and half-channel height at the inlet is 180. The three-dimensional spatio-temporal characteristics of separation bubbles upstream and downstream of the step are analysed with particular attention to the effects of impinging hairpin structures and the topology of principal stretching. Immediately upstream of the step, the fluctuating vorticity parallel to the mean streamlines is significant. On the frontal surface of the step, strong spanwise skin friction appears in the form of alternating positive and negative values in vertical strips. Over the step, the principal stretching switches orientation along a curve emanating from the leading edge, which is termed the principal stretching line (PSL). The reverse flows upstream and downstream of the step possess dominant and harmonic frequencies that mirror those of the incoming flow. As a hairpin structure leans over the step, the associated vorticity is deformed by the principal stretching. Specifically, PSL marks the lower bound of the deformed hairpin legs, and an opposite-signed pair of counter-rotating quasi-streamwise vortices are induced near the top surface of the step. Consequently, the separation bubbles upstream of and over the step are enlarged and suppressed, respectively. For a sufficiently strong hairpin structure interacting with the step, an open-type separation occurs upstream of the step, while dual separation bubbles appear over the step.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
Felsic tuff as a direct fallout deposit is known from one small area in the Kyrenia Range, north Cyprus, within deep-sea terrigenous turbidites. Nearby tuffaceous siltstones contain compositionally similar felsic volcanic rocks (c. 5–10%), mixed with terrigenous material. Sedimentary evidence indicates that the fallout tuff was variable reworked locally, whereas the tuffaceous siltstones are interpreted as turbidites mixed with terrigenous material derived from Anatolia. U–Pb dating of zircons that were extracted from a sample of relatively homogeneous tuff yielded a dominant age of 16.64 ± 0.12 Ma (Burdigalian). Zircon trace-element analysis indicates predominant derivation from within-plate-type felsic magma. Whole-rock chemical analysis of the tuffaceous sediments as a whole is compatible with a felsic arc source, similar to the post-collisional magmatism within Anatolia. Regional comparisons suggest that the nearest volcanism of similar age and composition is located c. 500 km away, within the Kırka area (Eskişehir region) of the Western Anatolia Volcanic Province. Evidence of tephra dispersal in the western Mediterranean region and climatic modelling suggests E-wards prevailing winds and therefore tephra transport over southern Anatolia and adjacent areas during early Miocene time. The north Cyprus tuffs could represent powerful Minoan (Plinian)-type eruptions in western Anatolia, coupled with SE-wards tephra transport during and soon after the onset of post-collisional magmatism.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
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There is compelling evidence for gradient effects of household income on school readiness. Potential mechanisms are described, yet the growth curve trajectory of maternal mental health in a child's early life has not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to examine the relationships between household incomes, maternal mental health trajectories from antenatal to the postnatal period, and school readiness.
Prospective data from 505 mother–child dyads in a birth cohort in Singapore were used, including household income, repeated measures of maternal mental health from pregnancy to 2-years postpartum, and a range of child behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive outcomes from 2 to 6 years of age. Antenatal mental health and its trajectory were tested as mediators in the latent growth curve models.
Household income was a robust predictor of antenatal maternal mental health and all child outcomes. Between children from the bottom and top household income quartiles, four dimensions of school readiness skills differed by a range of 0.52 (95% Cl: 0.23, 0.67) to 1.21 s.d. (95% CI: 1.02, 1.40). Thirty-eight percent of pregnant mothers in this cohort were found to have perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in the subclinical and clinical ranges. Poorer school readiness skills were found in children of these mothers when compared to those of mothers with little or no symptoms. After adjustment of unmeasured confounding on the indirect effect, antenatal maternal mental health provided a robust mediating path between household income and multiple school readiness outcomes (χ2 126.05, df 63, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.031, CFI = 0.980, SRMR = 0.034).
Pregnant mothers with mental health symptoms, particularly those from economically-challenged households, are potential targets for intervention to level the playing field of their children.
Mental health (MH) service users have increased prevalence of chronic physical conditions such as cardio-respiratory diseases and diabetes. Potentially Preventable Hospitalisations (PPH) for physical health conditions are an indicator of health service access, integration and effectiveness, and are elevated in long term studies of people with MH conditions. We aimed to examine whether PPH rates were elevated in MH service users over a 12-month follow-up period more suitable for routine health indicator reporting. We also examined whether MH service users had increased PPH rates at a younger age, potentially reflecting the younger onset of chronic physical conditions.
A population-wide data linkage in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, population 7.8 million. PPH rates in 178 009 people using community MH services in 2016–2017 were compared to population rates. Primary outcomes were crude and age- and disadvantage-standardised annual PPH episode rate (episodes per 100 000 population), PPH day rate (hospital days per 100 000) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (AIRR).
MH service users had higher rates of PPH admission (AIRR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.6) and a larger number of hospital days (AIRR 5.2, 95% CI 5.2–5.3) than other NSW residents due to increased likelihood of admission, more admissions per person and longer length of stay. Increases were greatest for vaccine-preventable conditions (AIRR 4.7, 95% CI 4.5–5.0), and chronic conditions (AIRR 3.7, 95% CI 3.6–3.7). The highest number of admissions and relative risks were for respiratory and metabolic conditions, including chronic obstructive airways disease (AIRR 5.8, 95% CI 5.5–6.0) and diabetic complications (AIRR 5.4, 95% CI 5.1–5.8). One-quarter of excess potentially preventable bed days in MH service users were due to vaccine-related conditions, including vaccine-preventable respiratory illness. Age-related increases in risk occurred earlier in MH service users, particularly for chronic and vaccine-preventable conditions. PPH rates in MH service users aged 20–29 were similar to population rates of people aged 60 and over. These substantial differences were not explained by socio-economic disadvantage.
PPHs for physical health conditions are substantially increased in people with MH conditions. Short term (12-month) PPH rates may be a useful lead indicator of increased physical morbidity and less accessible, integrated or effective health care. High hospitalisation rates for vaccine-preventable respiratory infections and hepatitis underline the importance of vaccination in MH service users and suggests potential benefits of prioritising this group for COVID-19 vaccination.