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Amphibole in the lower parts of the Lilloise layered intrusion occurs interstitially and as a replacement of pyroxene; in the upper rocks it is a major cumulus phase. There is an overall trend of increasing Fe/(Fe + Mg) with height. Coupled substitutions which effect the variation in composition of the amphiboles are chiefly Na,K(A)+Al(T) for □A+SiT) and Ti+Al(T) for Fe3+(C)+ Si(T). There is considerable variation in composition both on the specimen scale and within individual grains. This variation, plus scatter found in plots of the coupled substitutions, is partly attributed to many of the amphiboles having replaced pyroxene and also to the effects of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
It has been proposed that Uranus and Neptune originated interior to ∽ 10 AU, as potential gas giant cores which were scattered outward when Jupiter won the race to reach runaway gas accretion. We present further numerical simulations of this scenario, which show that it reproduces the present configuration of the outer Solar System with a high degree of success for a wide range of initial conditions. Also, we show that this mechanism may have simultaneously ejected planets from the asteroid belt.
Complex oxides and semiconductors exhibit distinct yet complementary properties
owing to their respective ionic and covalent natures. By electrically coupling
oxides to semiconductors within epitaxial heterostructures, enhanced or novel
functionalities beyond those of the constituent materials can potentially be
realized. Key to electrically coupling oxides to semiconductors is controlling
the physical and electronic structure of semiconductor – crystalline
oxide heterostructures. Here we discuss how composition of the oxide can be
manipulated to control physical and electronic structure in
Ba1-xSrxTiO3/ Ge and
SrZrxTi1-xO3/Ge heterostructures. In the
case of the former we discuss how strain can be engineered through composition
to enable the re-orientable ferroelectric polarization to be coupled to carriers
in the semiconductor. In the case of the latter we discuss how composition can
be exploited to control the band offset at the semiconductor - oxide interface.
The ability to control the band offset, i.e. band-gap engineering, provides a
pathway to electrically couple crystalline oxides to semiconductors to realize a
host of functionalities.
Mental health literacy is increasingly referenced as a goal of mental health policy. However, the current definition of this concept has a relatively narrow focus on mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to explore mental health literacy through the use of vignettes and to begin to articulate a broader definition.
Six groups of young people (n=42) aged between 16 and 25 years old responded to open-ended questions about vignettes depicting fictional characters with diagnosable mental health problems. The responses were analysed using Foucault’s governmentality theory.
The responses to the vignettes highlighted a range of determinants of our mental health. The young people suggested informal mental health-promoting techniques and highlighted the importance of talking. Ambiguity was reported in relation to the types of knowledge that are important in responding to mental health need. Finally, the responses were reflective of young people who are empathetic and view mental health from the perspective of our shared humanity, rather than as a marginal issue.
As mental health literacy is increasingly becoming a goal of mental health policy, it is timely that a shared understanding of this important concept is articulated. The current definition of mental health literacy is narrow in its focus on the recognition of mental disorders. A more broad-based definition of mental health literacy should be adopted by policy makers, reflecting the full range of determinants of mental health and recognising the importance of mental wellbeing.
The 2013 Infection Prevention and Control (IP&C) Guideline for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) was commissioned by the CF Foundation as an update of the 2003 Infection Control Guideline for CF. During the past decade, new knowledge and new challenges provided the following rationale to develop updated IP&C strategies for this unique population:
1. The need to integrate relevant recommendations from evidence-based guidelines published since 2003 into IP&C practices for CF. These included guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and key professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). During the past decade, new evidence has led to a renewed emphasis on source containment of potential pathogens and the role played by the contaminated healthcare environment in the transmission of infectious agents. Furthermore, an increased understanding of the importance of the application of implementation science, monitoring adherence, and feedback principles has been shown to increase the effectiveness of IP&C guideline recommendations.
2. Experience with emerging pathogens in the non-CF population has expanded our understanding of droplet transmission of respiratory pathogens and can inform IP&C strategies for CF. These pathogens include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the 2009 influenza A H1N1. Lessons learned about preventing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens in non-CF patient populations also can inform IP&C strategies for CF.
Results of investigations into the palaeoecological setting of the stone-circle/ring-cairn prehistoric complex on Cefn Gwernffrwd, Mid-Wales are presented in two radiocarbon-dated pollen diagrams. Mesolithic and Neolithic environments of the locality are briefly discussed. The conjectured archaeological age of the complex is then considered and compared with the palaeoecological evidence. The latter indicates construction of the complex in two separate episodes in the Bronze Age. Initial construction was probably in the Overton period (3650–3400 bp); later major local disturbance in the Penard period (3000–2800 bp) may be associated with construction of the ring cairn. These dates may slightly underestimate the age of human activities as they are based on fine particulate peat fractions of horizons in which the effects of activities are evident. The indications of a previously forested environment may have implications for the astronomical significance of the ‘alignment’ at the complex. Blanket peat initiation on the plateau was apparently connected with the Bronze Age impact on forest in this locality.
The environmental setting of two late-prehistoric enclosures in upland Ardudwy, Gwynedd was investigated by pollen analysis of nearby valley mire deposits and of old ground surfaces revealed during excavation of the sites. Radiocarbon-dated pollen data indicate human influence on the local environment since Mesolithic times, with the major period of woodland clearance in the early Bronze Age. The two enclosures appear to have been constructed in an environment already substantially deforested. Remanent upland timber resources appear to have been substantially depleted during occupation of the sites, whilst soil acidification and/or climatic change may also have contributed to their eventual abandonment.
High-redshift quasars are unique probes of the evolution of supermassive black holes and the intergalactic medium at the end of the epoch of reionization. We present the optical spectra of eight new z ~ 6 quasars selected from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1). Details of the selection strategy can be found in Bañados et al. (2014). With this work we increase the number of known quasars at z < 5.7 by more than 10%. The quasars discovered here span a large range of luminosities (19.6 ≤ zP1 ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show weak or no Lyα emission line. We find a larger fraction of weak–line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies, although still based on low number statistics, this may imply that the quasar population could be more diverse than previously thought.
The Magnetoresistance Measured perpendicular to the plane of the Multilayer, (CPP-MR) has been measured for the Cu/CO and Cu/ (Ni/Fe) systems. The predictions of a two spin-channel model are summarized, and the Cu/CO data are analysed in terms of this theory. The Cu/ (NiFe) data show a more complex behaviour.
To establish the structural origins of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co-Pt alloys, a variety of magnetic and structural characterization techniques have been utilized. We have determined that the development of out-of-plane magnetization in these alloys, strongly depends on growth temperature and in contrast to CO/Pt Multilayers, the highest anisotropics and coercivities are observed in polycrystalline alloys with negligible preferred crystallographic orientation. Lattice strain Measurements, surface roughness determination and crystal growth studies indicate that contributions from magnetostrictive and magnetostatic contributions to the perpendicular anisotropy in these alloys are not significant. H RTEM and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction experiments, on the other hand, confirm the existence of ordered CoPt3 at elevated temperatures. We suggest that the strong temperature dependence of the perpendicular anisotropy is correlated to the onset of spontaneous chemical ordering during the growth which results in anisotropie pair ordering. A tentative model explaining this strong temperature dependence is described.
We have studied the influence of ultra-thin interfacial Fe layers on the structural and magnetoresistance properties of CO/Cu Multilayers. Our results show that the giant magnetoresistance arises from spin dependent scattering at the CO/Cu interfaces and in the bulk of Co, the interfacial contribution being predominant. We also demonstrate that the close-packed crystallographic structure of Co and Cu is very sensitive to the insertion of interfacial bec Fe layers: for small thicknesses, Co as well as Cu adopt a metastable bec structure.
We have searched for the electronic states that mediate oscillatory magnetic coupling in superlattices, and have found strong evidence that these are quantum well states, which are created by quantizing the momentum of s,p-band states perpendicular to the interfaces. The quantum well picture also explains how quantum well states in noble metals become spin-polarized, due to a spin-dependent electron reflectivity at the interface with the ferromagnet. The resulting implications for magnetoresistance are discussed.
The Magnetoresistance of MBE deposited Co/Cu (111) superlattices as a function of Cu layer thickness is studied at various growth temperatures. Wedged superlattices are fabricated with uniform Co layers but with Cu layers whose thickness varies with position along the length of the substrate. Cu thickness is varied over the range 7–75Å. Only one Maximum M Magnetoresistance (MR) is observed for a Cu layer thickness ∼ 10Å for all growth temperatures studied (0°, 150°, 200°C). The optimal magnetoresistance values are achieved with 150°C growth temperature.
We demonstrate that the photon energy dependence of the polar Kerr effect can be used as a sensitive probe of chemical ordering effects in binary intermetallic alloys. We demonstrate this effect in the Co50Pt50 alloy, which is known to have a Ll0 phase (critical temperature ∼825°C). Kerr spectra of the ordered and disordered phases of the Co50Pt50 alloy composition differ drastically from each other and the ordered phase shows an unprecedented, new peak at 2.2eV photon energy. The intensity of this new peak correlates with the degree of chemical ordering and the magnetic anisotropy in these films.
A study has been made of the magnetic properties of epitaxial 6 Monolayer (ML) fcc-Fe films on Cu (100) with various thicknesses of epitaxial Cu deposited on top of the Fe. It was found that the magnetic properties undergo striking changes as a function of the Cu thickness. The easy axis of magnetization goes from being in-plane for the bare Fe to perpendicular upon the deposition of 1 ML Cu. Concurrently there is a dramatic decrease in the Kerr signal intensity at saturation. Upon depositing a second ML of Cu the Kerr signal intensity more than doubles, and the easy axis remains perpendicular. For Cu overlayers of 3 ML to 10 ML the Kerr signal intensity at saturation gradually diminishes to below the level of detectability, as if the Fe were nonmagnetic. A superlattice consisting of 60 ML Cu/ (6 ML 57Fe/10 ML Cu)×5/Cu (100) was fabricated and studied at room temperature by conversion electron Mòssbauer spectroscopy. The results confirmed that the Fe is indeed nonmagnetic. The four inner Fe layers of the 6 ML film have the same isomer shift as bulk fcc-Fe in precipitates in Cu, and the two boundary Fe layers exhibit an asymmetric quadrupole doublet.
The origin of oscillatory interlayer coupling via Cu is explored in sputtered Co/Cu Multilayers by varying the hole concentration in the copper layers by doping with elements of different valence. Detailed studies were carried out for a series of Cu-Ni alloys. The oscillation period of pure Cu is observed to increase monotonically with increasing Ni concentration and is almost doubled for 40 atomic % Ni. The increase in oscillation period can be accounted for by considering changes in the topology of (he Fermi surface of the alloy resulting from the change in band Tilling.
An experimental study of conventional x-ray absorption and of magnetic circular x-ray dichroism has been performed on Ce/Fe Multilayers at the Ce L2,3 and the Fe-K edge, to characterize the impact of the interaction of Ce and Fe on the local electronic and magnetic structure of the interface. The spectra reveal that the interaction has two effects. First, on a depth scale of up to 15 A near the interface, the Ce atoms adopt the electronic structure of the oc-phase, with itinerant 4f states. Second, a large portion (=10 Å) of these cc-like Ce atoms is magnetically polarized and carries an ordered Magnetic 5d Moment. The Fe-3d and Ce-5d Moments are antiferromagnetically coupled. Interface Mixing on a length scale of the magnetic polarization can be excluded.