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Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
Irregularities plague elections in developing democracies. The international community spends hundreds of millions of dollars on election observation, with little robust evidence that it consistently improves electoral integrity. We conducted a randomized control trial to measure the effect of an intervention to detect and deter electoral irregularities employing a nation-wide sample of polling stations in Uganda using scalable information and communications technology (ICT). In treatment stations, researchers delivered letters to polling officials stating that tallies would be photographed using smartphones and compared against official results. Compared to stations with no letters, the letters increased the frequency of posted tallies by polling center managers in compliance with the law; decreased the number of sequential digits found on tallies – a fraud indicator; and decreased the vote share for the incumbent president in some specifications. Our results demonstrate that a cost-effective citizen and ICT intervention can improve electoral integrity in emerging democracies.
Varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox (CP) and after reactivation herpes zoster (HZ). Vaccines are available against both diseases warranting an assessment of the pre-vaccination burden of disease. We collected data from relevant Belgian databases and performed five surveys of CP and HZ patients. The rates at which a general practitioner is visited at least once for CP and HZ are 346 and 378/100 000 person-years, respectively. The average CP and HZ hospitalization rates are 5·3 and 14·2/100 000 person-years respectively. The direct medical cost for HZ is about twice as large as the direct medical cost for CP. The quality-adjusted life years lost for ambulatory CP patients consulting a physician is more than double that of those not consulting a physician (0·010 vs. 0·004). In conclusion, both diseases cause a substantial burden in Belgium.
Recent developments in the area of cost effective 2D direct x-ray sensor arrays on the base of a-SiN:H back-to-back Schottky diodes and no switching devices per pixel are presented. Discussion focuses on two major aspects: (i) x-ray sensitivity of the sensor itself and possibility of its improvement; (ii) the overall performance of the sensor array.
The possibility of creating an 2D X-ray sensor array on the base of a-SiN:H thin films without switching elements and an X-ray conversion layer is presented in this report. The behavior of a-SiN:H Thin-Film Diode under X-ray irradiation, its limitations, and ways of increasing long-term stability and sensitivity of the sensor are discussed.
The potential of Er-doped Cs2NaYF6 and GaN for mid-infrared emission at λ≈ 2.7 ν is investigated using time-resolved optical spectroscopy. This emission results from electronic transitions between the second (4I11/2) and first (4I13/2) excited states of the Er3+ ion. By recording the photoluminescence transients for the 4I11/2 → 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transitions after pulsed excitation, we determine the lifetime of the 4I11/2 level and demonstrate that the 4I13/2 state is populated from this level. Our results indicate that both host lattices should enable 2.7 νm emission, which is temperature-stable but subject to concentration quenching.
A number of localizations for the putative susceptibility gene(s)
have been identified for both
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In a genome wide scan, Hugot
et al. (1996) identified a region
on chromosome 16 which appeared to be responsible for the inheritance of
disease in a small proportion of families. Subsequent work has suggested
that this localization is
important for susceptibility to Crohn's disease rather than ulcerative
colitis (Ohmen et al. 1996;
Parkes et al. 1996). We investigated the contribution of this
localization to the inheritance of
inflammatory bowel disease in 54 multiplex Australian families, and confirmed
its importance in a
significant proportion of Crohn's disease families; we further refined
the localization to a region near
to D16S409, obtaining a maximum LOD score of 6.3 between D16S409 and D16S753.
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