To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
Recently there has been a considerable rise in the frequency of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, due to changes in lifestyle and resultant imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. Whey proteins are considered as potentially important components of a dietary solution to the obesity problem. However, the roles of individual whey proteins in energy balance remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) containing α-lactalbumin (LAB), a specific whey protein, or the non-whey protein casein (CAS), on energy balance, nutrient transporters expression and enteric microbial populations. C57BL/6J mice (n 8) were given an HFD containing either 20 % CAS or LAB as protein sources or a low-fat diet containing CAS for 10 weeks. HFD-LAB-fed mice showed a significant increase in cumulative energy intake (P=0·043), without differences in body weight, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, RER or subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue weight. HFD-LAB intake led to a decrease in the expression of glut2 in the ileum (P=0·05) and in the fatty acid transporter cd36 (P<0·001) in both ileum and jejunum. This suggests a reduction in absorption efficiency within the small intestine in the HFD-LAB group. DNA from faecal samples was used for 16S rRNA-based assessment of intestinal microbiota populations; the genera Lactobacillus, Parabacteroides and Bifidobacterium were present in significantly higher proportions in the HFD-LAB group. These data indicate a possible functional relationship between gut microbiota, intestinal nutrient transporters and energy balance, with no impact on weight gain.
The University of Georgia (USA) is partnering with the University of Padova (Italy) for a dual Master’s degree program in sustainable agriculture, promoting collaboration on some of the biggest challenges facing agriculture today. This innovative program which was launched during 2016 provides students with outstanding training and a unique opportunity to learn about the challenges, opportunities, and leading edges of precision agriculture on another continent – an experience which will serve graduates well when they enter the job market in an increasingly global economy. This paper presents the goals of the program, the curriculum, and describes the opportunities available to prospective students. In addition it describes the process of developing the dual degree which can be used as guide by others wishing to develop similar programs.
We say that a Banach space
is ‘nice’ if every extreme operator from any Banach space into
is a nice operator (that is, its adjoint preserves extreme points). We prove that if
is a nice almost
is isometrically isomorphic to
for some set
. We also show that if
is a nice Banach space whose closed unit ball has the Krein–Milman property, then
. The proof of our results relies on the structure topology.
Advances in radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have made it possible to date prehistoric cave paintings by sampling the pigment itself instead of relying on dates derived from miscellaneous prehistoric remains recovered in the vicinity of the paintings. The work at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) concentrated on prehistoric charcoal cave paintings from southern France and northern Spain. In most caves, pigment samples were collected from several paintings, and in some instances the sample size allowed for multiple independent measurements on the same figure, so that the coherence of the calculated dates could be tested. Before being dated, each specimen was subjected to a thermal treatment preceded by an acid and basic treatment of intensity commensurate with the sample size.
Nine bison drawings from three caves in the Cantabrian region of Spain—two from Covaciella, three from Altamira, and four from El Castillo—were sampled and dated. The 27 dates fell between 13,000 and 14,500 BP, allowing us to attribute the drawings to the Magdalenian period. The 24 dates for 13 drawings in the Cosquer cave indicated two distinct periods of painting activity—one around 28,000 BP and the other around 19,000 BP. The Chauvet cave paintings turned out to be the oldest recorded to date, as five dates fell between 32,000 and 31,000 BP. After discussing the sample preparation protocol in more detail, we will discuss the ages obtained and compare them with other chronological data.
Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was carried out on extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy until an equivalent strain of ∼4 (corresponding to 4 passes) at 523K following route Bc. The effect of the deformation on both microstructure and texture was investigated by analysis of inverse pole figures and pole figures respectively, determined by EBSD. Additionaly, the mechanical properties were evaluated through tensile tests. The ECAPed processed ZK60 alloy showed the presence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process, correlated with a strong basal fiber texture. The presence of pyramidal slip was also observed, which can be correlated with the presence on twin-oriented boundaries in the material. Both the grain size reduction and the existence of texture influenced the ductility of the magnesium alloy processed by ECAP, as the ductility of the ZK60 alloy after four ECAP passes increased two times in comparation with the initial (un-processed) material.
We have used the 1st revision of the WGACAT catalogue, generated from all ROSAT PSPC pointed observations from February 1991 to March 1994, available at the HEASARC public archive. This catalogue, described by White et al. (1994), contains 68,907 detections, with more than 62,000 individual sources.
In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands.
An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated.
In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients).
A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.
The main goal of the current work was to develop and validate an in vitro fluke egg hatch test, as a method for the detection of albendazole (ABZ) resistance in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Fluke eggs (200/ml, n= 5) from six different isolates were used in the current experimental work. They were obtained from different geographical locations and named Cullompton (UK), CEDIVE (Chascomus, Argentina), INTA-Bariloche (Bariloche, Argentina), Rubino (Uruguay), Cajamarca (Perú) and Río Chico (Catamarca, Argentina). The fluke eggs were incubated (25°C) for a 12-h period in the presence of either ABZ or its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZ.SO) (5, 0.5 or 0.05 nmol/ml). Untreated eggs were incubated as a control. Incubated eggs (with or without drug present) were kept in darkness at 25°C for 15 days. Afterwards, the trematode eggs were exposed to daylight over a 2-h period. Hatched and unhatched eggs were evaluated using an optical microscope, and the ovicidal activity was assessed for each fluke isolate. A very low ovicidal activity ( ≤ 13.4%) was observed in the ABZ-resistant CEDIVE isolate for both ABZ and ABZ.SO. Conversely, in the INTA-Bariloche and Río Chico isolates, which are suspected to be susceptible to ABZ, ovicidal activities ≥ 70.3% were observed after incubation with ABZ at the lowest concentration tested (0.05 nmol/ml). This finding correlates with that previously described for the ABZ-susceptible Cullompton. Finally, the Cajamarca and Rubino isolates behaved as ABZ resistant, since no ovicidal activity was observed after eggs were incubated with ABZ at 0.5 nmol/ml. Considering the specific results obtained for each isolate under assessment, the egg hatch test described here may be a suitable method for detection of ABZ resistance in F. hepatica.
The information stored in animal feed databases is highly variable, in terms of both provenance and quality; therefore, data pre-processing is essential to ensure reliable results. Yet, pre-processing at best tends to be unsystematic; at worst, it may even be wholly ignored. This paper sought to develop a systematic approach to the various stages involved in pre-processing to improve feed database outputs. The database used contained analytical and nutritional data on roughly 20 000 alfalfa samples. A range of techniques were examined for integrating data from different sources, for detecting duplicates and, particularly, for detecting outliers. Special attention was paid to the comparison of univariate and multivariate solutions. Major issues relating to the heterogeneous nature of data contained in this database were explored, the observed outliers were characterized and ad hoc routines were designed for error control. Finally, a heuristic diagram was designed to systematize the various aspects involved in the detection and management of outliers and errors.
The present research work analyses the influence of microalloying elements (B, Nb, V and Ti) on the tensile strength and the strain hardening behavior of a high-manganese TWIP steel. The analysis was carried out by means of true stress-true strain curves derived from uniaxial tension tests. The work hardening exponent was determined by using the Hollomon and differential Crussard-Jaoul models. Metallographic characterization was carried out to determine the metallurgical changes associated with n values. The results indicate that the Hollomon analysis results in strain hardening exponent values up to 0.46. On the other hand, the differential Crussard-Jaoul analysis establishes a clear distinction of n value for two stages of plastic deformation which are determined by a sharp slope change in the plot of ln(dσ/dε)-lnε.
We studied the effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the Freedericksz transition of a liquid crystal (LC) and calibrated the altitudinal angle of CNTs as a function of the electric field. In addition, we directed the azimuthal angle which gave us complete control of the 3D orientation of the CNTs. We constructed anti-parallel electro-optic cells using a nanocomposite at a concentration of 0.01% CNTs with 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal. This low concentration was necessary to achieve maximum transmission of electromagnetic radiation through the cell and to minimize the Van der Waals attraction between the CNTs responsible for their aggregation. We chose two dimensional microscopic transmission ellipsometry (2D-MTE) to measure the phaseshift of the polarized electromagnetic radiation through the cell and to derive from it the altitudinal angle of the CNTs. Our results show that in the presence of CNTs the Freedericksz transition occurs at 55% of the transitional electric field as compared to the control electro-optic cell without CNTs. The width of the Freedericksz transition narrows by a similar factor. The switching time of the cell decreased in the presence CNTs by 18.5%.
Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.
By isolating the red clump giant population in the color-magnitude diagrams and inverting their star counts, we can obtain directly the density distribution of the old stellar population along the line of sight. We have applied this method to several near infrared surveys and obtained information on the disc, bulge and long bar. The disc is well fitted by an exponential distribution in both the galactocentric distance and height, flared and warped in the outer parts, and with a deficit of stars in the inner in-plane regions. The long bar occupies these in-plane regions within R < 3.9 kpc, with approximate dimensions of 7.8 kpc × 1.2 kpc × 0.2 kpc and a position angle of 40-45 deg. The bulge is a triaxial structure, possibly boxy, thicker and shorter than the long bar and with position angle of 10-30 deg.
For closed and connected subgroups G of SO(n), we study the energy functional on the space of G-structures of a (compact) Riemannian manifold (M, 〈⋅, ⋅〉), where G-structures are considered as sections of the quotient bundle (M)/G. We deduce the corresponding first and second variation formulae and the characterising conditions for critical points by means of tools closely related to the study of G-structures. In this direction, we show the rôle in the energy functional played by the intrinsic torsion of the G-structure. Moreover, we analyse the particular case G=U(n) for 2n-dimensional manifolds. This leads to the study of harmonic almost Hermitian manifolds and harmonic maps from M into (M)/U(n).
Female fertility begins to decline many years before menopause, despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Decreased fecundity with increasing female age has long been recognized in demographic and epidemiological studies. Traditionally, the evaluation of the infertile female consists of: (i) ovulation assessment (ovulatory factors), (ii) evaluation of the uterine morphology (ovulation assessment) and tubal patency (tubal factors), (iii) assessment of the presence of pelvic pathology (by laparoscopy) (peritoneal factors), and (iv) postcoital test (cervical factors). Hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy are widely used in assessing infertility. Chlamydia antibody testing is a screening method for assessing tubal infertility. HSG, sonohysterography, hystero-salpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hysteroscopy are used in assessment of uterine factors related to infertility. Currently, the best method to monitor ovulation is transvaginal ultrasound, which can be used to demonstrate the growth of a dominant follicle and provide presumptive evidence of ovulation and leutinization.
We describe the boxy bulge, long stellar bar and elliptical ring of the Galaxy. This model has largely evolved from NIR survey work by many teams and differs from other models with a monolithic ellipsoidal bulge. We maintain that the structure of the inner Galaxy can only be properly studied by adequately sampling the entire Galactic plane for |l| < 30°, |b| < 1.5°, and that the bulge is best studied at least 3° from the plane. We briefly report a slight radially outwardly increasing metallicity gradient along the bar and reaffirm de Vaucouleurs & Pence's (1978) suggestion that the Galaxy is probably of morphological type SAB(rs)bc II.
We present TCS-CAIN, a NIR survey of the Galactic plane, recently made public at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and some results derived from it: with star counts derived directly the structure of the inner the Milky Way can be dissected, obtaining also estimations for the extinction toward the inner MW.
We present TCS-CAIN, a NIR survey of the Galactic plane, recently made public at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and some results derived from it: with star counts derived directly from it the structure of the inner the Milky Way can be dissected, and with low resolution spectra, (part of a follow-up program), its nature, specifically the metallicity distribution in the inner 4 kpc of the Galaxy, further understood.