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Introduction: Determining fluid status prior to resuscitation provides a more accurate guide for appropriate fluid administration in the setting of undifferentiated hypotension. Emergency Department (ED) point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been proposed as a potential non-invasive, rapid, repeatable investigation to ascertain inferior vena cava (IVC) characteristics. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using PoCUS to measure IVC size and collapsibility. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre international study investigating PoCUS in ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension. We prospectively collected data on IVC size and collapsibility using a standard data collection form in 6 centres. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a clinically useful (determinate) scan defined as a clearly visible intrahepatic IVC, measurable for size and collapse. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: A total of 138 scans were attempted on 138 patients; 45.7% were women and the median age was 58 years old. Overall, one hundred twenty-nine scans (93.5%; 95% CI 87.9 to 96.7%) were determinate. 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for IVC size, and 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for collapsibility. Conclusion: In this analysis of 138 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension, the vast majority of PoCUS scans to investigate IVC characteristics were determinate. Future work should include analysis of the value of IVC size and collapsibility in determining fluid status in this group.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
To examine neonatal risk factors associated with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus colonization and to determine the genetic relatedness of S. aureus strains cultured from neonates before and after decolonization.
Single-center retrospective cohort study of neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 2013 to December 2015, during which weekly nasal cultures from hospitalized NICU patients were routinely obtained for S. aureus surveillance.
Johns Hopkins Hospital’s 45-bed level IV NICU in Baltimore, Maryland.
Demographics and clinical data were collected on all neonates admitted to the NICU with S. aureus nasal colonization who underwent mupirocin-based decolonization during the study period. A decolonized neonate was defined as a neonate with ≥1 negative culture after intranasal mupirocin treatment. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for strain typing.
Of 2,060 infants screened for S. aureus, 271 (13%) were colonized, and 203 of these 271 (75%) received intranasal mupirocin. Of those treated, 162 (80%) had follow-up surveillance cultures, and 63 of these 162 infants (39%) developed recurrent colonization after treatment. The S. aureus strains were often genetically similar before and after decolonization. The presence of an endotracheal tube or nasal cannula/mask was associated with an increased risk of recurrent S. aureus colonization (hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–5.90; and HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.02–4.75, respectively).
Strains identified before and after decolonization were often genetically similar, and the presence of invasive respiratory devices increased the risk of recurrent S. aureus nasal colonization in neonates. To improve decolonization efficacy, alternative strategies may be needed.
We aimed to assess the maternal and family determinants of four anthropometric typologies at the household level in Colombia for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010.
We classified children <5 years old according to height-for-age Z-score (<−2) and BMI-for-age Z-score (>2) to assess stunting and overweight/obesity, respectively; mothers were categorized according to BMI to assess underweight (<18·5 kg/m2) and overweight/obesity (≥25·0 kg/m2). At the household level, we established four final anthropometric typologies: normal, underweight, overweight and dual-burden households. Separate polytomous logistic regression models for each of the surveyed years were developed to examine several maternal and familial determinants of the different anthropometric typologies.
National and sub-regional (urban and rural) representative samples from Colombia, South America.
Drawing on data from three waves of Colombia’s Demographic and Health Survey/Encuesta Nacional de Salud (DHS/ENDS), we examined individual and household information from mothers (18–49 years) and their children (birth–5 years).
Higher parity was associated with an increased likelihood of overweight and dual burden. Higher levels of maternal education were correlated with lower prevalence of overweight, underweight and dual burden of malnutrition in all data collection waves. In 2010, participation in nutrition programmes for children <5 years, being an indigenous household, food purchase decisions by the mother and food security classification were also associated with the four anthropometric typologies.
Results suggest that maternal and family correlates of certain anthropometric typologies at the household level may be used to better frame policies aimed at improving social conditions and nutrition outcomes.
Introduction: Introduction: Paramedics frequently make immediate life-altering decisions with minimal clinical information. This applies to their decision to treat an unconscious patient with naloxone when the history of an opioid overdose cannot be readily established. Among patients treated by paramedics with naloxone, our objective was to compare patient demographics, treatment interventions and clinical response between patients with and without a confirmed history of an opioid overdose. Methods: Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study design of consecutive patients treated with naloxone by paramedics between January 1, 2016, and June 30, 2017. Patients were classified based on whether paramedics did or did not document a history of an opioid overdose. Baseline characteristics, treatment interventions, and response to naloxone were compared between groups. Comparisons were done using a chi-squared or Fishers exact test. Results: Results: We identified 294 patients of whom 113 (38%) did not have a confirmed history of an opioid overdose. The groups were similar in gender, bystander CPR, and bystander administration of naloxone. There were no differences in the presence of pinpoint pupils, initial oxygen saturation, initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), respiratory rate, or time on scene. Both patient groups were managed similarly with respect to route of naloxone administration and the use of a bag valve mask. All patients who were intubated were in the no confirmed history group (n=5; p=.003). Post naloxone there were no differences in last recorded vital signs except the no confirmed history group was less likely to achieve a GCS 10 (57% versus 89%; p<.001). The overall post-naloxone development of agitation (9%) was moderate while the need for physical/chemical restraint (2%) was low with no differences between groups. All patients were transported to the hospital. Conclusion: Conclusion: A substantial proportion of patients who received naloxone did not have a confirmed history of an opioid overdose. These patients closely resembled those with a confirmed history with respect to demographics and physical characteristics. The primary difference was a lower proportion of patients with no confirmed history who achieved a post naloxone GCS 10. Despite a moderate development of post naloxone agitation, paramedics were able to manage most of these patients without the use of physical/chemical restraints.
n-3 PUFA are lipids that play crucial roles in immune-regulation, cardio-protection and neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the role that these essential dietary fats play in modulating caecal microbiota composition and the subsequent production of functional metabolites. To investigate this, female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of three diets (control (CON), n-3 supplemented (n3+) or n-3 deficient (n3−)) during gestation, following which their male offspring were continued on the same diets for 12 weeks. Caecal content of mothers and offspring were collected for 16S sequencing and metabolic phenotyping. n3− male offspring displayed significantly less % fat mass than n3+ and CON. n-3 Status also induced a number of changes to gut microbiota composition such that n3− offspring had greater abundance of Tenericutes, Anaeroplasma and Coriobacteriaceae. Metabolomics analysis revealed an increase in caecal metabolites involved in energy metabolism in n3+ including α-ketoglutaric acid, malic acid and fumaric acid. n3− animals displayed significantly reduced acetate, butyrate and total caecal SCFA production. These results demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA regulate gut microbiota homoeostasis whereby n-3 deficiency may induce a state of disturbance. Further studies are warranted to examine whether these microbial and metabolic disturbances are causally related to changes in metabolic health outcomes.
Pregnant women, children under 2 and the first thousand days of life have been principal targets for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease interventions. This paradigm has been criticized for laying responsibility for health outcomes on pregnant women and mothers and through the thousand days focus inadvertently deflecting attention from other windows for intervention. Drawing on insights from the South African context, this commentary argues for integrated and inclusive interventions that encompass broader social framings. First, future interventions should include a wider range of actors. Second, broader action frameworks should encompass life-course approaches that identify multiple windows of opportunity for intervention. Using two examples – the inclusion of men, and engagement with adolescents – this commentary offers strategies for producing more inclusive interventions by using a broader social framework.
Introduction: Patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are frequently transported to the closest hospital after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is often indicated as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure following OHCA. This study aimed to determine the association between the type of destination hospital (PCI-capable or not) and survival to discharge for patients with OHCA and prehospital ROSC. We hypothesized that being transported to a PCI-capable hospital would be associated with a higher survival to discharge. Methods: The present study used a registry of adult OHCA between 2010 and 2015 in Montréal, Canada. We included adult patients with non-traumatic OHCA and prehospital ROSC. The association of interest was evaluated with a multivariate logistic regression model to control for demographic and clinical variables (age, gender, time of day, initial rhythm, witnessed arrest, bystander CPR, presence of first responders or advanced care paramedics, prehospital supraglottic airway placement, delay before paramedics’ arrival). Assuming a survival rate of 40% and 75% of the variability explained by other factors included in the model, more than 1200 patients needed to be included to detect an absolute difference of 10% in survival between both groups with a power of more than 90%. Results: A total of 1691 patients (1140 men and 551 women) with a mean age of 64 years (standard deviation 17) were included, of which 1071 (63%) were transported to a PCI-capable hospital. Among all patients, 704 patients (42%) survived to hospital discharge. We observed a significant independent association between survival to discharge and being transported to a PCI-capable hospital (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.09-1.96]) after controlling for confounding variables. Having an initial shockable rhythm and presence of first responders also increased survival to discharge (AORs 3.67 [95% confidence interval 2.75-4.88] and 1.53 [95% confidence interval 1.12-2.09], respectively). Conclusion: Patients experiencing ROSC after OHCA could benefit from a direct transport to a PCI-capable hospital. This benefit might also be related to unmeasured interventions other than PCI these hospitals can provide (e.g. high-level intensive care or cardiovascular surgery).
This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland’s Rural College’s long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from ‘cradle to farm gate’. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU–energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way the positive or negative outcome of trade-offs between land and production efficiencies, in which improvement in emissions intensity using one FU may be accompanied by deterioration using another FU. The perceived environmental efficiencies of different dairy production systems in terms of their emissions intensities were susceptible to change based upon the FU employed, and hence the FU used in any study needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of results.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
To investigate patterns of survival and estimate conditional survival rates among brain cancer patients in Canada. METHODS: Canadian Cancer Registry data were obtained for all patients with primary brain cancer diagnosed between 1992 and 2008 (n=38,095). Follow-up ended with patient death or December 31, 2008, whichever occurred first. Crude Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated at one, two, and five years post-diagnosis and also used to estimate conditional survival (restricted to 2000-2008). Age group, sex, residence and microscopic confirmation were considered in estimating rates for major histology types using multivariate models. RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate was 27%. Oligodendrogliomas had the highest 5-year survival rate (65%, 95% CI: 62.5-67.4%) and glioblastomas the lowest (4.0%, 95% CI: 3.7-4.3%). Compared to Ontario, the age- and sex-adjusted 5-year glioblastoma survival estimates were lower in British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba-Saskatchewan, lower in all other regions for diffuse astrocytoma, and lower in Manitoba-Saskatchewan for anaplastic astrocytomas. Estimates were significantly higher for oligodendrogliomas in Alberta, and for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in Alberta and Quebec (P<0.05). Longer term conditional survival rates (surviving an additional 2 years 1-4 years after diagnosis) varied by histologic group. CONCLUSION: There is a need to further explore the underlying reasons for the observed variation in survival rates by region in an effort to improve the prognosis of brain cancer in the Canadian patient population. Conditional survival information has value for clinicians as they plan the course of treatment and follow-up for individual patients.
High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation characterised by treatment resistance, medication non-concordance and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed as both an oral and depot antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. Whilst there is data for the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP), there are no studies involving patients in forensic settings or those with comorbid personality disorder.
To determine the effects of PP on violence, aggression and personality pathology.
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of PP.
This was a retrospective service evaluation involving 11 patients. Medical records and interviews with the treating psychiatrist were used to formulate clinical global impression (CGI) and to identify incidents of violence. The effect on personality symptom domains; cognitive-perceptual, impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol and affective dysregulation was ascertained, as well as engagement with occupational and psychological therapies.
Six patients were being prescribed PP. All 6 showed improvement in the CGI score with benefits in the symptom domains. Two patients demonstrated a reduction in violence risk and 2 remained incident-free. There was improvement in engagement with therapies. Benefits were also seen in aspects of personality for those who had discontinued PP.
This pragmatic study of a small but complex patient group demonstrated that PP was effective in reducing symptoms of schizophrenia. Additionally and for the first time, it was shown that PP was also effective in reducing violence as well as improving personality pathology dimensions in a comorbid patient. This could have significant implications for management of high-security patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Mock galaxy catalogues are essential to the error analysis of cosmological measurements from big galaxy surveys covering thousands of square degrees in the sky, like BOSS, WiggleZ, DES, or Euclid. The PTHalos mock galaxy catalogues were used in the BOSS survey to analyse the BAO measurement from the CMASS (z∼ 0.57) and LOWZ (z∼ 0.32) galaxy samples, which provided the best estimate to date of the cosmic distance scale from galaxy surveys at these redshifts. We review the PTHalos mocks galaxy catalogues and their key contributions to these analyses.