The occurrence in coal seams of planes of division, generally approximately at right angles to the stratification, has been known for centuries. Owing to the important part these planes play in the lay-out of workings, miners have found it necessary carefully to pay heed to their direction and character. They long ago observed, for example, that, in the majority of seams, there are main divisions or “cleats” and secondary divisions or “cross-cleats,” and that these systems intersect at an angle of generally 80 to 90 degrees. It was also seen that cleats are always best developed in the bright parts of bituminous coal, and that they are less distinct, more widely spaced, or even non-apparent in durain and in cannel. When the dull and bright parts are finely laminated, however, the cleat planes pass through the mass without interruption. Sparry inclusions (ankerites) are very common in the cleats of bright coal and equally rare in dull coal; occasionally the inclusions extend a little way into the roof, and then the existence of associated cleat in the roof is particularly easy to detect.