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The synthesis of clay minerals has been studied for decades in an attempt to better understand their formation in natural environments and more recently to obtain clay minerals with controlled compositions and properties. Even though nontronite has been synthesized successfully since 1935, the process is not a straightforward and has been poorly documented. In the present review concerning the synthesis of nontronite and other Fe-rich smectites, the experiments attempted in the past are discussed critically in light of the most recent data. Most notably, the application of relationships established recently, thanks to synthetic smectitic series, have allowed us to refine the chemical compositions of some nontronites synthesized previously.
The prevalence of depression in rural Ugandan communities is high and yet detection and treatment of depression in the primary care setting is suboptimal. Short valid depression screening measures may improve detection of depression. We describe the validation of the Luganda translated nine- and two-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9 and PHQ-2) as screening tools for depression in two rural primary care facilities in Eastern Uganda.
A total of 1407 adult respondents were screened consecutively using the nine-item Luganda PHQ. Of these 212 were randomly selected to respond to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview diagnostic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics for respondents’ demographic characteristics and PHQ scores were generated. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs), and area under the ROC curve were determined for both the PHQ-9 and PHQ-2.
The optimum trade-off between sensitivity and PPV was at a cut-off of ≧5. The weighted area under the receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.74 (95% CI 0.60–0.89) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.54–0.82) for PHQ-9 and PHQ-2, respectively.
The Luganda translation of the PHQ-9 was found to be modestly useful in detecting depression. The PHQ-9 performed only slightly better than the PHQ-2 in this rural Ugandan Primary care setting. Future research could improve on diagnostic accuracy by considering the idioms of distress among Luganda speakers, and revising the PHQ-9 accordingly. The usefulness of the PHQ-2 in this rural population should be viewed with caution.
We briefly describe the current version of the PHOENIX code. We then present some illustrative results from the modeling of Type Ia and Type II supernovae, hot stars, and irradiated giant planets. Good fits to observations can be obtained, when account is taken for spherically symmetric, line-blanketed, static or expanding atmospheres.
In this paper we apply the Wilson-Price procedure to the solution of the binary system AO Cam using simultaneously all the available information and a statistical criterion to judge about the quality of the solutions found.
We discuss the physical effects that are important for the formation of the late wind spectra of novae. Nova atmospheres are optically thick, rapidly expanding shells with almost flat density profiles, leading to geometrically very extended atmospheres. We show how the properties of nova spectra can be interpreted in terms of this basic model and discuss some important effects that influence the structure and the emitted spectrum of nova atmospheres, e.g., line blanketing, NLTE effects, and the velocity field. Most of the radiation from hot nova winds is emitted in the spectral range of the EUVE satellite. Therefore, we present predicted EUVE spectra for the later stages of nova outbursts. Observations of novae with EUVE could be used to test our models for the nova outburst.
The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage – low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage – low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage – high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size.
Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P < 0.05) oocyte maturation rate compared with the fresh and PROH groups. For morula and blastocyst rates, the DMSO group achieved a lower (P < 0.05) morula rate compared with the fresh group, while at the blastocyst stage, there were no differences between fresh and both cryoprotectants groups. For molecular analysis, at the 4-cell stage, most studied genes showed an inconsistent pattern of expression either from the PROH or DMSO groups. Noteworthily, these differences were limited at the morula and blastocyst stages. In conclusion, the cryotop method is sufficient for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant.
Axial heterostructure nanowires with Si and SiGe segments have been grown using Au metal seed as catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) via vapor-liquid-solid process (VLS). We report on the effect of growth intervention on the droplet stability which in turn modifies NW morphology and interfacial abruptness. Growth stop of 2 minutes on transition from one material to another have been demonstrated to suppress reservoir effect by Au catalyst. The two SiGe/Si and Si/SiGe heterointerfaces are found to be assymetric. The former being diffused while the latter one is sharp. Furthermore, geometric phase analysis reports elastic deformation at the heterointerface. Nanowire undergoes rotation in both clock and anticlockwise direction at their sidewalls with an angle of 2.5° in order to accommodate this strain.
The aim of the study was the construction of risk maps for exposure to Phlebotomus sergenti, the main vector of Leishmania tropica, with a view to identifying hot spots for the potential establishment of this parasite in the southwest of Europe. Data were collected on the presence/absence of this vector and the ecological and climatic characteristics of 662 sampling sites located in the southeast, centre and northeast of the Iberian Peninsula (south-western Europe). The environmental factors associated with the distribution of P. sergenti were determined. The best predictors for the presence of this dipteran were ‘altitude’, ‘land use’, ‘land surface temperature’, ‘aspect’, ‘adjacent land cover’, ‘absence of vegetation in wall’ and the ‘absence of PVC pipes in the drainage holes of retaining walls’. Risk maps for exposure to the vector were drawn up based on these variables. The validation of the predictive risk model confirmed its usefulness in the detection of areas with a high risk of P. sergenti being present. These locations represent potential hot spots for an autochthonous focus of L. tropica becoming established. The risk maps produced for P. sergenti presence revealed several areas in the centre and south of the Iberian Peninsula to be the most prone to this process, which would make it possible for the disease to enter south-western Europe.
The close environment of Herbig stars starts to be revealed step by step and it appears to be quite complex. Many physical phenomena interplay: the dust sublimation causing a puffed-up inner rim, a dusty halo, a dusty wind or an inner gaseous component. To investigate more deeply these regions, getting images at the first Astronomical Unit scale is necessary. This has become possible with near infrared instruments on the VLTI. We have developed a new imaging method adapted to young stellar objects where we process separately the stellar component from the rest of the image to reveal the environment by using the spectral differences between these two components. We present the result of this method on the first imaging survey of Herbig stars carried out by PIONIER on the VLTI.
Light absorbed by chl. antenna is converted almost instantaneously into charge pairs in photochemical centres, which makes possible excitation by short flashes or modulated light thus generating various absorption, fluorescence or luminescence responses. The possibility of manipulating light excitation at will, together with the abundance of chromophores in the photosynthetic machinery, has favoured the development of optical monitoring of photosynthesis in vivo. The three complementary dimensions of optical methods, spectral, kinetic and imaging, provide unique tools to investigate the photosynthetic energy metabolism and, beyond, the bioenergetic status of the whole cell.
There is not a one-to-one correspondence between the measuring opportunities offered by various chromophores embedded in the thylakoid membranes and the aspects of the photosynthetic process they allow monitoring (Table 10.1). Starting from the mechanisms of light interactions with pigments, we will introduce the optical methods that have proved useful for studying leaf photosynthesis, using ‘intensive’ parameters (ratios such as Fv/Fm, kinetic amplitudes and time constants) that automatically compensate for variations of signal intensity between leaf samples. Other non-photosynthetic optical methods that can be used simultaneously (blue-green fluorescence (BGF), IR reflectance) will be briefly mentioned. Applications of leaf reflectance and fluorescence to remote sensing will be addressed in more detail in Chapter 15 and light absorption by leaves and canopies in Chapter 16.
In the mid-eighteenth century, the Scottish coal industry was characterized by small pits, lagging technology, serf labor, and owner management. Thus, severe bottlenecks in the supply of responsible managerial personnel occurred when the market expanded as the result of the establishment of coke-using iron works and the growth of urban centers in the last four decades of the century. By 1815, however, the Scottish industry had seen the rise of large firms, an advance in technology, the abolition of serf labor, and the attainment of near self-sufficiency in the supply of essential professional managers.
Introduction, Mandeep K. Dhami, Anne Schlottmann, and Michael R. Waldmann
In conclusion, rather than present a summary of the preceding chapters, we invited nine eminent past presidents of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making (SJDM) to provide personal perspectives on the concept of JDM as a dynamic skill. These scholars were not asked to comment on the chapters in this book, but rather to highlight their personal points of contact with the notion of JDM as a dynamic skill. The following perspectives offer historical accounts, and also point to future lines of research.
Shanteau describes how over the years he has highlighted the importance of training and skill acquisition in JDM, but feels “blue” that this view has not been more popular. Wallsten remembers the benefits of learning for JDM performance found in a study that he conducted 30 years ago, and confesses that he has only recently begun to revisit this important finding. Fischhoff points out that a sound understanding of the normative implications of tasks has laid a better foundation for the study of dynamically changing skills, especially in development. Levin and colleagues provide useful examples of their research on the developmental and neurological bases of JDM skills. Reyna highlights how her fuzzy trace theory taps into JDM processes that develop over time and experience, has neurological correlates, and may be evolutionarily adaptive. Baron reveals how he now finds himself in search of the developmental origins of the types of moral heuristics and biases that he has studied during his career. Hogarth shares three steps he has developed during decades of teaching decision making that can help people make better decisions. Klayman reveals that despite decades of studying learning and development of JDM, he still seeks a greater understanding of how decision makers “get that way.” Finally, Birnbaum points to the methodological factors that have limited our understanding of JDM as a skill, and presents a challenge for future researchers: to explain how and why JDM skills change. Overall, the following perspectives provide a rare glimpse of the personalized views of those who have made significant contributions to the field of human JDM.
The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission.
We present a detailed study of the electronics properties of individual silicon nano- crystals (nc-Si) elaborated by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition on 1.2 nm thick SiO2 grown on Si (100). The combination of ultra thin oxide layers and highly doped substrates allows imaging the hemispherical dots by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. By analyzing the STM images, we deduce a size distribution, which ranges between 3 and 6 nm with a surface density around 1012 cm-2. Spectroscopic studies of single dots are made by recording the I(V) curves on the Si nanocrystal accurately selected with the metallic tip. These I(V) curves obtain on a single dot, exhibit Coulomb blockade and resonant tunneling effects. Coulomb pseudo gaps, Ec, between 0.15 and 0.2 V are measured for different dots. From the width and height of the staircases observed at bias greater than Ec, 60 meV and 40 pA respectively, capacitance of 0.5 to 1 aF and tunnel resistance of 3.5×108 and 5.7×109 Ohms are measured within the orthodox approximation for asymmetric junctions. We have determined, from experimental measurements, the energy of the first level confined in nc-Si.
The laser ablation technique was used to fabricate high Tc superconducting composite structures. The multilayered structures were fabricated in‐situ by changing the target during deposition. Thin MgO films and yttrium‐stabilized Zr02 films were used as buffer layers. The composite films were successfully fabricated on ZrO2(100) substrates. There is negligible interdiffusion occurring at the interfaces and the Jc at 77K is higher than 105A/cm2 for YBCO films in a triple layered structure.