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where N ≥ 3, a > 0, h : ℝN → (0, + ∞) and f : [0, + ∞) → [0, + ∞) are continuous functions with f having a subcritical growth. The main tool used is the variational method together with estimates that involve the Riesz potential.
The fraction of organic matter present affects the fragmentation behavior of sialoliths; thus, pretherapeutic information on the degree of mineralization is relevant for a correct selection of lithotripsy procedures. This work proposes a methodology for in vivo characterization of salivary calculi in the pretherapeutic context. Sialoliths were characterized in detail by X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) in combination with atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Correlative analysis of the same specimens was performed by in vivo and ex vivo helical computed tomography (HCT) and ex vivo μCT. The mineral matter in the sialoliths consisted essentially of apatite (89 vol%) and whitlockite (11 vol%) with average density of 1.8 g/cm3. In hydrated conditions, the mineral mass prevailed with 53 ± 13 wt%, whereas the organic matter, with a density of 1.2 g/cm3, occupied 65 ± 10% of the sialoliths’ volume. A quantitative relation between sialoliths mineral density and X-ray attenuation is proposed for both HCT and μCT.
This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th–13th, 20th–26th and 30th–36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) plasma concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Vitamin D status was categorised as sufficient or insufficient using the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines (≥75/<75 nmol/l) and the Institute of Medicine (≥50/<50 nmol/l) thresholds. Linear mixed-effect regression models were employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and each outcome, considering interaction terms between vitamin D status and gestational age (P<0·1). At baseline, 70·7 % of pregnant women had 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/l and 16 % had levels <50 nmol/l. Women with sufficient vitamin D status at baseline, using both thresholds, presented lower glycaemia than those with insufficient 25(OH)D. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/l showed lower insulin (β=−0·12; 95 % CI −0·251, 0·009; P=0·069) and adiponectin (β=−0·070; 95 % CI −0·150, 0·010; P=0·085) concentrations throughout pregnancy than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l at baseline presented significantly higher leptin concentrations than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/l (β=−0·253; 95 % CI −0·044, 0·550; P=0·095). The baseline status of vitamin D influences the biomarkers involved in glucose metabolism. Vitamin D-sufficient women at baseline had higher increases in insulin and adiponectin changes throughout gestation than those who were insufficient.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases. The georeferencing used the ArcGis programme and occurrence of cases was evaluated in relation to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that categorises socio-economic and sanitation factors. The data identified a marked decrease in the overall prevalence of leprosy, a reduction in the new case-detection rate and a reduction in the number of cases with grade 2 disabilities (albeit with transient peaks in 2007 and 2015). Logistic regression analysis showed association of detection rates with elevated HVI. Thus, while the epidemiological indicators point to the elimination of leprosy, there is evidence of hidden cases and an association between higher rates of leprosy detection and greater social vulnerability remain.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.
We prove that for a wide family of non-uniformly hyperbolic maps and hyperbolic potentials we have equilibrium stability, i.e. the equilibrium states depend continuously on the dynamics and the potential. For this we deduce that the topological pressure is continuous as a function of the dynamics and the potential. We also prove the existence of finitely many ergodic equilibrium states for non-uniformly hyperbolic skew products and hyperbolic Hölder continuous potentials. Finally, we show that these equilibrium states vary continuously in the
topology within such systems.
Fat supplementation plays an important role in defining milk fatty acids (FA) composition of ruminant products. The use of sources rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid favors the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids isomers, increasing the healthy properties of milk. Ruminal microbiota plays a pivotal role in defining milk FA composition, and its profile is affected by diet composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of rumen FA production and microbial structure to hemp or linseed supplementation in diets of dairy goats. Ruminal microbiota composition was determined by 16S amplicon sequencing, whereas FA composition was obtained by gas-chromatography technique. In all, 18 pluriparous Alpine goats fed the same pre-treatment diet for 40±7 days were, then, arranged to three dietary treatments consisting of control, linseed and hemp seeds supplemented diets. Independently from sampling time and diets, bacterial community of ruminal fluid was dominated by Bacteroidetes (about 61.2%) and Firmicutes (24.2%) with a high abundance of Prevotellaceae (41.0%) and Veillonellaceae (9.4%) and a low presence of Ruminococcaceae (5.0%) and Lachnospiraceae (4.3%). Linseed supplementation affected ruminal bacteria population, with a significant reduction of biodiversity; in particular, relative abundance of Prevotella was reduced (−12.0%), whereas that of Succinivibrio and Fibrobacter was increased (+50.0% and +75.0%, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found among the average relative abundance of archaeal genera between each dietary group. Moreover, the addition of linseed and hemp seed induced significant changes in FA concentration in the rumen, as a consequence of shift from C18 : 2n-6 to C18 : 3n-3 biohydrogenation pathway. Furthermore, dimethylacetal composition was affected by fat supplementation, as consequence of ruminal bacteria population modification. Finally, the association study between the rumen FA profile and the bacterial microbiome revealed that Fibrobacteriaceae is the bacterial family showing the highest and significant correlation with FA involved in the biohydrogenation pathway of C18 : 3n-3.
Primary seed dispersal of many rain-forest seeds occurs through defecation by mammals. Dung beetles are attracted to the defecations and through their dung-processing behaviour these insects change the initial pattern of seed deposition. Final seed deposition patterns, i.e. where and how seeds are deposited after dung beetle activity has taken place, may strongly depend on seed size. In this study we addressed the following question: Do different sizes of seeds have different deposition patterns following dung beetle processing? We conducted a field experiment in lowland Amazonian rain forest in Brazil using 200-g dung-piles containing seed mimics of three sizes: 3.5, 8.6 and 15.5 mm long. Seed deposition condition after dung beetle activity was dependent on seed size. Small seeds were more often buried in beetle tunnels, while medium and large seeds more often remained on the soil surface, either clean or still covered by dung. A low proportion of seeds of all sizes remained on the soil surface covered by loose soil excavated by dung beetles. We speculate that the latter deposition pattern, though not very frequent, might be highly favourable for both seed survival and seedling establishment.
Recent studies with Nile tilapia have shown divergent results regarding the possibility of selecting on morphometric measurements to promote indirect genetic gains in fillet yield (FY). The use of indirect selection for fillet traits is important as these traits are only measurable after harvesting. Random regression models are a powerful tool in association studies to identify the best time point to measure and select animals. Random regression models can also be applied in a multiple trait approach to analyze indirect response to selection, which would avoid the need to sacrifice candidate fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships between several body measurements, weight and fillet traits throughout the growth period and to evaluate the possibility of indirect selection for fillet traits in Nile tilapia. Data were collected from 2042 fish and was divided into two subsets. The first subset was used to estimate genetic parameters, including the permanent environmental effect for BW and body measurements (8758 records for each body measurement, as each fish was individually weighed and measured a maximum of six times). The second subset (2042 records for each trait) was used to estimate genetic correlations and heritabilities, which enabled the calculation of correlated response efficiencies between body measurements and the fillet traits. Heritability estimates across ages ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 for height, 0.02 to 0.48 for corrected length (CL), 0.05 to 0.68 for width, 0.08 to 0.57 for fillet weight (FW) and 0.12 to 0.42 for FY. All genetic correlation estimates between body measurements and FW were positive and strong (0.64 to 0.98). The estimates of genetic correlation between body measurements and FY were positive (except for CL at some ages), but weak to moderate (−0.08 to 0.68). These estimates resulted in strong and favorable correlated response efficiencies for FW and positive, but moderate for FY. These results indicate the possibility of achieving indirect genetic gains for FW and by selecting for morphometric traits, but low efficiency for FY when compared with direct selection.
We present a study of the turbulence cascade on the centreline of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic near-field turbulent wake generated by a square prism at a Reynolds number of
using the Kármán–Howarth–Monin–Hill equation. This is the fully generalised scale-by-scale energy balance which, unlike the Kármán–Howarth equation, does not require homogeneity or isotropy assumptions. Our data are obtained from a direct numerical simulation and therefore enable us to access all of the processes involved in this energy balance. A significant range of length scales exists where the orientation-averaged nonlinear interscale transfer rate is approximately constant and negative, indicating a forward turbulence cascade on average. This average cascade consists of coexisting forward and inverse cascade behaviours in different scale-space orientations. With increasing distance from the prism but within the near field of the wake, the orientation-averaged nonlinear interscale transfer rate tends to be approximately equal to minus the turbulence dissipation rate even though all of the inhomogeneity-related energy processes in the scale-by-scale energy balance are significant, if not equally important. We also find well-defined near
energy spectra in the streamwise direction, in particular at a centreline position where the inverse cascade behaviour occurs for streamwise oriented length scales.
Lithotripsy methods show relatively low efficiency in the fragmentation of sialoliths compared with the success rates achieved in the destruction of renal calculi. However, the information available on the mechanical behavior of sialoliths is limited and their apparently tougher response is not fully understood. This work evaluates the hardness and Young’s modulus of sialoliths at different scales and analyzes specific damage patterns induced in these calcified structures by ultrasonic vibrations, pneumoballistic impacts, shock waves, and laser ablation. A clear correlation between local mechanical properties and ultrastructure/chemistry has been established: sialoliths are composite materials consisting of hard and soft components of mineralized and organic nature, respectively. Ultrasonic and pneumoballistic reverberations damage preferentially highly mineralized regions, leaving relatively unaffected the surrounding organic matter. In contrast, shock waves leach the organic component and lead to erosion of the overall structure. Laser ablation destroys homogeneously the irradiated zones regardless of the mineralized/organic nature of the underlying ultrastructure; however, damage is less extensive than with mechanical methods. Overall, the present results show that composition and internal structure are key features behind sialoliths’ comminution behavior and that the organic matter contributes to reduce the therapeutic efficiency of lithotripsy methods.
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up. We used Fine & Gray's model for the survival analyses with competing risks, since we had regarded immunodeficiency-unrelated deaths as a competing event, and we estimated the adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHRs). In 10 012·6 person-years of observation there were 3·1 deaths/100 person-years (2·3 immunodeficiency-related and 0·8 immunodeficiency-unrelated). TB (SHR 4·01), anaemia (SHR 3·58), CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (SHR 3·33) and being unemployed (SHR 1·56) were risk factors for immunodeficiency-related death. This study discloses a 13% coverage by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our state and adds that anaemia at baseline or the incidence of TB may increase the specific risk of dying from HIV-immunodeficiency, regardless of HAART and CD4.
The present study investigated the impact of a western diet during gestation and lactation on the anthropometry, serum biochemical, blood pressure and cardiovascular autonomic control on the offspring. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother’s diet received: control group (C: 18% calories of lipids) and westernized group (W: 32% calories of lipids). After weaning both groups received standard diet. On the 60th day of life, blood samples were collected for the analysis of fasting glucose and lipidogram. Cardiovascular parameters were measured on the same period. Autonomic nervous system modulation was evaluated by spectrum analysis of heart rate (HR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). The W increased glycemia (123±2 v. 155±2 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein (15±1 v. 31±2 mg/dl), triglycerides (49±1 v. 85±2 mg/dl), total cholesterol (75±2 v. 86±2 mg/dl), and decreased high-density lipoprotein (50±4 v. 38±3 mg/dl), as well as increased body mass (209±4 v. 229±6 g) than C. Furthermore, the W showed higher SAP (130±4 v. 157±2 mmHg), HR (357±10 v. 428±14 bpm), sympathetic modulation to vessels (2.3±0.56 v. 6±0.84 mmHg2) and LF/HF ratio (0.15±0.01 v. 0.7±0.2) than C. These findings suggest that a western diet during pregnancy and lactation leads to overweight associated with autonomic misbalance and hypertension in adulthood.
Controlled irrigation during the dry period associated with adequate nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) fertilization led to the accumulation of biochemical compounds in coffee beans considered as positive precursors of beverage quality. Adult plants of coffee (Coffea arabica ‘Rubi’) were cultivated using different water regimes (WR) and fertilization conditions under the dry climate of the Brazilian Cerrado. Coffee-bean physical characteristics were evaluated as well as biochemical composition by near-infrared analysis. The K treatment mostly affected bean biochemistry, lipid and chlorogenic acid (CGA) contents, which increased with increasing amounts of fertilizer. Caffeine contents increased with higher amounts of N, but no significant effects of P treatment on bean biochemical composition were observed. Sucrose and total lipid contents always appeared higher in beans of non-irrigated plants than those beans from plants grown with continuous irrigation. In contrast, caffeine and CGA contents were higher in beans of irrigated as compared with non-irrigated plants. For the first time, the current results showed that controlled management of irrigation during the dry period associated with reasonable NPK fertilization led to the accumulation of biochemical compounds in coffee beans considered as positive precursors of beverage quality.
The effect of heavy metal in fish has been the focus of extensive research for many years. However, the combined effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials is still a new subject that needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to examine histopathologic alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of lead (Pb), carbon nanotubes, and Pb+carbon nanotubes on their histological integrity, and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programs. For this, tilapia were exposed to Pb, carbon nanotubes and Pb+carbon nanotubes for 4 days. The main alterations observed were epithelial structure, hyperplasia and displacement of epithelial cells, and alterations of the structure and occurrence of aneurysms in the secondary lamella. The most severe alterations were related to the Pb+carbon nanotubes. We conclude that the oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the acute lead toxicity in Nile tilapias. This work draws attention to the implications of carbon nanomaterials released in the aquatic environment and their interaction with classical pollutants.
The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
The traditional beef production in the South of Portugal is based on a discontinuous growth (DG) system that requires lower external inputs and could enhance meat quality and financial returns to cattle producers. This system allows farmers to take advantage of the bull’s compensatory growth when the pasture is abundant and finishes the cattle on concentrates for 2 to 3 months before slaughter. The fast gain rate before slaughter could be a valuable strategy to improve tenderness and to reduce its inconsistency in beef production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of production system (continuous growth (CG) v. DG) on longissimus thoracis muscle properties from Alentejana bulls. In total, 40 Alentejana male calves were allocated to two distinct feeding regimes: in the CG system, animals were fed concentrate plus hay and slaughtered at 18 months of age, whereas in the DG system, animals were fed on hay until 15 months of age and then fed the same diet provided to the CG group until 24 months of age. The DG system had a positive impact on meat tenderness (P<0.001) and global acceptability (P<0.001). DG bulls had greater fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) of glycolytic fibres (P<0.05) and relative area of the muscle (RA) occupied by type IIX fibres (P<0.01) and greater levels of α-actinin (P<0.05) and myosin light chain 2 (P<0.01) proteins, and pH24h (P<0.01) than CG bulls. The latter had greater CSA of type I (P<0.05) and type IIA (P<0.01) and greater RA of type IIA (P<0.05) and oxidative (P<0.05) than CG bulls. The compensatory growth production system had a positive impact on meat tenderness and global acceptability, overcoming the negative effects of slaughter of the bulls at a later age. The DG beef system could be a worthwhile strategy of beef production in Mediterranean areas due to the low-quality pasture in summer.
Patients with a deletion at chromosome 22q11.2 (22q11DS) have 30% lifetime risk of developing a psychosis. People fulfilling clinical criteria for ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis have 30% risk of developing a psychosis within 2 years. Both high-risk groups show white-matter (WM) abnormalities in microstructure and volume compared to healthy controls (HC), which have been related to psychotic symptoms. Comparisons of WM pathology between these two groups may specify WM markers related to genetic and clinical risk factors.
Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and WM volume with structural MRI, in 23 UHR patients, 21 22q11DS patients, and 33 HC.
Compared to UHR patients 22q11DS patients had (1) lower AD and RD in corpus callosum (CC), cortical fasciculi, and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), (2) higher FA in CC and ATR, and (3) lower occipital and superior temporal gyrus WM volume. Compared to HC, 22q11DS patients had (1) lower AD and RD throughout cortical fasciculi and (2) higher FA in ATR, CC and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Compared to HC, UHR patients had (1) higher mean MD, RD, and AD in CC, ATR and cortical fasciculi, (2) no differences in FA.
UHR and 22q11DS patients share a susceptibility for developing psychosis yet were characterized by distinct patterns of WM alterations relative to HC. While UHR patients were typified by signs suggestive of aberrant myelination, 22q11DS subjects showed signs suggestive of lower axonal integrity.