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Treatment options for Hepatitis C infection have greatly improved with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combinations achieving high cure rates. Nevertheless, the cost of this treatment is still high and access to treatment in many countries has been preferentially reserved for patients with more severe fibrosis (F3 and F4). In this French nationwide study, we investigated the epidemiological characteristics and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in treatment-naive patients with METAVIR fibrosis stages between F0 and F2 in order to identify patient profiles that became eligible for unrestricted treatment in a second period. Between 2015 and 2016 we collected data from nine French university hospitals on a total of 584 HCV positive patients with absent, mild or moderate liver fibrosis. The most represented genotypes were genotype 1b (159/584; 27.2%), followed by genotype 1a (150/584; 25.7%); genotype 3 (87/584: 14.9%); genotype 4 (80/584; 13.7%). Among genotype 4: 4a was predominantly encountered with 22 patients (27.5% of genotype 4). Genotypes 1b and 1a are currently the most frequent virus types present in treatment-naive patients with mild fibrosis in France. They can be readily cured using the available DAA. Nevertheless, non-a/non-d genotype 4 is also frequent in this population and clinical data on the efficacy of DAA on these subtypes is missing. The GEMHEP is the French group for study and evaluation of viral hepatitis on a national scale. Data collection on epidemiological and molecular aspects of viral hepatitis is performed on a regular basis in all main French teaching hospitals and serves as a basis for surveillance of these infections. Analysis and trends are regularly published on behalf of the GEMHEP group. Data collection was performed retrospectively over the 2015–2016 period, covering nine main university hospitals in France. A total of 584 hepatitis C positive patients were included in this study. Genotyping of the circulating viruses showed a high prevalence of genotypes 1b and 1a in our population. The epidemiology of hepatitis C is slowly changing in France, particularly as a consequence of the rise of ‘non-a non-d’ genotype 4 viruses mainly originating from African populations. More data concerning treatment efficacy of these genotypes is needed in order to guide clinical care.
A current trend in the aeronautic industry is to increase the wing aspect ratio to enhance aerodynamic efficiency by reducing the induced drag and thus reduce fuel consumption. Despite the associated benefits of a large aspect ratio, such as higher lift-to-drag ratios and range, commercial aircraft usually have a relatively low aspect ratio. This is partially explained by the fact that the wing becomes more flexible with increasing aspect ratio and thus more prone to large deflections, which can cause aeroelastic instability problems such as flutter. In this work, an aeroelastic study is conducted on a rectangular wing model of 20 m span and variable chord for a low subsonic speed condition to evaluate the differences between linear and non-linear static aeroelastic responses. Comparisons between linear and non-linear displacements, natural frequencies and flutter boundary are performed. An in-house non-linear aeroelastic framework was employed for this purpose. In this work, the influence of the aspect ratio and geometric non-linearity (highly deformed states) is assessed in terms of aeroelastic performance parameters: flutter speed and divergence speed. A nearly linear correlation of flutter speed difference (relative to linear analysis results) with vertical-tip displacement difference is observed. The flutter and divergence speeds vary substantially as the wing aspect ratio increases, and the divergence speeds always remain above the flutter speed. Furthermore, the flutter mechanism was observed to change as the wing chord is decreased.
Commercial jets usually have relatively low-aspect-ratio wings, in spite of the associated benefits of increasing the wing aspect-ratio, such as higher lift-to-drag ratios and ranges. This is partially explained by the fact that the wing becomes more flexible by increasing the aspect-ratio that results in higher deflections which can cause aeroelastic instability problems such as flutter. An aeroelastic computational framework capable of evaluating the effects of geometric non-linearities on the aeroelastic performance of high-aspect-ratio wings has been developed and validated using numerical and experimental data. In this work, the aeroelastic performance of a base wing model with 20 m span and 1 m chord is analysed and the effect of changing the wing chord or the taper-ratio is determined. The non-linear static aeroelastic equilibrium solutions are compared in terms of drag polar, root bending moment and natural frequencies, and the change in the flutter speed boundary is assessed as a function of aspect-ratio using a time-marching approach.
Echinococcus multilocularis is a cestode that causes human alveolar echinococcosis, a lethal zoonosis of public health concern in central Asia and western China. In the present study, one of 42 Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) caught in Sary Mogol (Alay valley, southern Kyrgyzstan) presented liver lesions with E. multilocularis from which the EmsB target was amplified. The Asian profile obtained was almost identical to one amplified from domestic dog faeces collected in a nearby village. This observation adds additional information to the potential role of E. tancrei in the transmission of E. multilocularis, and to the known distribution range of E. multilocularis (Asian strain) in central Asia.
We report the first mono-specific facies of Parazoanthus axinellae from the western Portuguese coast. The habitat was recorded using a MiniRov Observer on a large outcrop at ca. 55–60 m in the Luiz Saldanha Marine Park. A method to estimate the maximum uncertainty of the ROV position is illustrated and the occurrence of the facies is discussed.
Electron microscopy (EM), cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pathogenic viruses to humans. The purification of enveloped viruses from cell culture presents certain challenges. Specifically, the inclusion of host-membrane-derived vesicles, the complete destruction of the viruses, and the disruption of the internal architecture of individual virus particles. Here, we present a strategy for capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids (AG) for use in both conventional EM and cryo-EM/ET applications. We examined the utility of AG for the selective capture of human immunodeficiency virus virus-like particles, influenza A, and measles virus. We applied nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid lipid layers in combination with molecular adaptors to selectively adhere the viruses to the AG surface. This further development of the AG method may prove essential for the gentle and selective purification of enveloped viruses directly onto EM grids for ultrastructural analyses.
We report on follow-up observations of 20 short-duration gamma-ray bursts
(T90 < 2s) performed in
with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) between mid-2007 and the
end of 2010. This is the most homogeneous and comprehensive data set on GRB afterglow
observations of short bursts. In three cases, GROND was on target within less than 10 min
after the trigger, leading to the discovery of the afterglow of GRB 081226A and its faint
underlying host galaxy. In addition, GROND was able to image the optical afterglow and
follow the light curve evolution in five further cases: GRBs 090305, 090426, 090510,
090927, and 100117A. Three of the aforementioned six bursts with optical light curves show
a break: GRBs 090426 and 090510 as well as GRB 090305. For GRB 090927, no break is seen in
the optical/X-ray light curve until about 150 ks/600 ks after the burst. A decay slope of
the optical afterglow of GRB 100117A could be measured. Using these data supplemented by
about ten events taken from the literature, we compare the jet half-opening angles of long
and short bursts. We find a tentative evidence that short bursts have wider opening angles
than long bursts. However, the statistics are still very poor and follow-up observations
of these events are therefore very important to gain as much observational data as
High-elasticity simulations of flows through a two-dimensional (2D) 4 : 1 abrupt contraction and a 4 : 1 three-dimensional square–square abrupt contraction were performed with a finite-volume method implementing the log-conformation formulation, proposed by Fattal & Kupferman (J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., vol. 123, 2004, p. 281) to alleviate the high-Weissenberg-number problem. For the 2D simulations of Boger fluids, modelled by the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation, local flow unsteadiness appears at a relatively low Deborah number (De) of 2.5. Predictions at higher De were possible only with the log-conformation technique and showed that the periodic unsteadiness grows with De leading to an asymmetric flow with alternate back-shedding of vorticity from pulsating upstream recirculating eddies. This is accompanied by a frequency doubling mechanism deteriorating to a chaotic regime at high De. The log-conformation technique provides solutions of accuracy similar to the thoroughly tested standard finite-volume method under steady flow conditions and the onset of a time-dependent solution occurred approximately at the same Deborah number for both formulations. Nevertheless, for Deborah numbers higher than the critical Deborah number, and for which the standard iterative technique diverges, the log-conformation technique continues to provide stable solutions up to quite (impressively) high Deborah numbers, demonstrating its advantages relative to the standard methodology. For the 3D contraction, calculations were restricted to steady flows of Oldroyd-B and Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) fluids and very high De were attained (De ≈ 20 for PTT with ϵ = 0.02 and De ≈ 10000 for PTT with ϵ = 0.25), with prediction of strong vortex enhancement. For the Boger fluid calculations, there was inversion of the secondary flow at high De, as observed experimentally by Sousa et al. (J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., vol. 160, 2009, p. 122).
The prevalence of nasal colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients and staff was studied in a section of a Paediatric Surgical Unit in Lisbon between February and July 1985. Nasal colonization was demonstrated in 41% of burned patients, 5% of non-burned patients and 35 % of the nurses. Infection by MRSA occurred in 30% of the burns.
The isolates had identical serological patterns, slight differences on phage typing and were resistant to methicillin, cephalosporins, tetracycline, erythromycin and aminoglycosides. A chloramphenicol resistance plasmid of 3 Md was present in those isolates which were chloramphenicol resistant and a small plasmid of 1·7 Md which coded for constitutive erythromycin resistance was present in many isolates. Gentamicin, tetracycline and inducible erythromycin resistance were chromosomal.
Several reasons for the apparent low virulence of the isolates are discussed. Attempts to control the outbreak by the discharge of colonized or infected patients, improvement of nursing practices and treatment with temporary removal from work of the colonized nurses did not eliminate the organism from the unit.
To date only four specimens of Chaceon gordonae from Sierra Leone (West Africa) and one specimen of C. sanctaehelenae from Saint Helen Island (Central South Atlantic) are known from the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Recently both these Geryonid species were recorded off São Tomé Island, off the central west coast of Africa and found to sustain a small artisanal trap fishery.
For high temperature superconducting multichip modules and other related electronic applications, it is necessary to be able to fabricate several Y1Ba2Cu3O7–x (YBCO) layers separated by thick low dielectric constant dielectric layers. In this work, we report the successful fabrication of YBCO/YSZ/SiO2 (1–2 μm)/YSZ/YBCO multilayer structures on single crystal yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. In contrast to previously reported work, the top YBCO layer did not show any cracking. This is due to a technique that allows for stress relief in the SiO2 layer before the second YBCO layer is deposited. The top YBCO layer in our multilayer structure had Tc = 87 K and Jc = 105 A/cm2 (at 77 K), whereas the bottom YBCO layer had Tc = 90 K and Jc = 1.2 × 106 A/cm2 (at 77 K). We also showed that the quality of the bottom YBCO layer was preserved during the fabrication of the multilayer due to the annealing process during which O2 diffused into the YBCO, replacing the O2 lost during the deposition of the top YBCO layer.
Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have all been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of corplex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects — and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.
This paper presents a comparative study of the microstructures formed in Al.59Ge.41and Al.70Ge.30 (eutectic composition) free standing films under laser irradiation. An hexagonal metastable phase located between Allamella, can be formed depending on the film composition and the laser pulse length.
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