Adult Ascaris suum were dissected to obtain different worm components (body wall, body fluid, ovaries, uterus and oesophagus) which were used as antigens when testing 95 sera of naturally A. suum-infected Iberian pigs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB). Pigs with patent Ascaris infections had significantly lower ELISA optical density values than pigs without adult worms when using the body fluid and the body wall as antigens. A poor negative correlation was found between adult intestinal worm burden or eggs in faeces and specific antibody responses, measured by ELISA and WB using all antigens. By WB, the recognition of specific bands was variable, but three groups of bands with molecular weights of 97 kDa, 54–58 kDa and 42–44 kDa were generally recognized by sera from naturally infected pigs as well as from hyperimmunized pigs when using the five antigen extracts. The ELISA and WB techniques may be used for immunodiagnosis, using somatic adult worm antigens, to declare young pigs to be Ascaris-free but cannot be used for individual Ascaris-diagnosis in adult Iberian pigs.