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The effect of 38 µg (1500 IU) daily vitamin D3 supplementation, consumed with an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal for 8 weeks, on haematological indicators in Fe-deficient female subjects was investigated. Fifty Fe-deficient subjects (plasma ferritin concentration <20 µg/l; mean age: 27·4 (sd 9·4) years) were randomised to consume an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal containing 9 mg of Fe daily, with either a vitamin D3 supplement or placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline, interim (4 weeks) and post-intervention (8 weeks) for measurement of Fe and vitamin D status biomarkers. The effect of intervention was analysed using mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVA. Significant increases were observed in two main haematological indices: Hb concentration and haematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention in the vitamin D group but not in the placebo group. The increase from baseline to post-intervention in Hb concentration in the vitamin D group (135 (sd 11) to 138 (sd 10) g/l) was significantly higher compared with the placebo group (131 (sd 15) to 128 (sd 13) g/l) (P=0·037). The increase in haematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention was also significantly higher in the vitamin D group (42·0 (sd 3·0) to 43·8 (sd 3·4) %) compared with the placebo group (41·2 (sd 4·3) to 40·7 (sd 3·6) %) (P=0·032). Despite the non-significant changes in plasma ferritin concentration, this study demonstrates that 38 µg supplemental vitamin D, consumed daily, with Fe-fortified breakfast cereal led to improvement in Hb concentration and haematocrit levels in women with low Fe stores. These findings may have therapeutic implications in the recovery of Fe status in Fe-deficient populations at a healthcare level.
Rabies is one of the major public health problems in China, and the mortality rate of rabies remains the highest among all notifiable infectious diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccination rate and risk factors for human rabies in mainland China. The PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical and Wanfang databases were searched for articles on rabies vaccination status (published between 2007 and 2017). In total, 10 174 human rabies cases from 136 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Approximately 97.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 95.1–98.7%) of rabies cases occurred in rural areas and 72.6% (95% CI 70.0–75.1%) occurred in farmers. Overall, the vaccination rate in the reported human rabies cases was 15.4% (95% CI 13.7–17.4%). However, among vaccinated individuals, 85.5% (95% CI 79.8%–83.4%) did not complete the vaccination regimen. In a subgroup analysis, the PEP vaccination rate in the eastern region (18.8%, 95% CI 15.9–22.1%) was higher than that in the western region (13.3%, 95% CI 11.1–15.8%) and this rate decreased after 2007. Approximately 68.9% (95% CI 63.6–73.8%) of rabies cases experienced category-III exposures, but their PEP vaccination rate was 27.0% (95% CI 14.4–44.9%) and only 6.1% (95% CI 4.4–8.4%) received rabies immunoglobulin. Together, these results suggested that the PEP vaccination rate among human rabies cases was low in mainland China. Therefore, standardised treatment and vaccination programs of dog bites need to be further strengthened, particularly in rural areas.
For this study, we adapted the Montgomery Borgatta Caregiver Burden Scale, used widely in the United States, to the Saudi Arabian context. To produce an Arabic, culturally sensitive version of the scale, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Saudi family caregivers. The Arabic version of the scale was tested, and participants were asked to comment on the appropriateness of items for the construct of “caregiver burden” using the repertory grid technique and laddering procedure – two constructivist methods derived from personal construct theory. From interview findings, we examined the content of the items and the caregiver burden construct itself. Our findings suggest that the use of constructivist methods to refine constructs and quantitative instruments is highly informative. This strategy is feasible even when little is known about the investigated constructs in the target culture and further elucidates our understanding of cross-cultural variations or invariance of different versions of the scale.
Flavonoids are natural compounds derived from different types of vegetables, fruits, and medicinal herbal plants. Hesperidin, a flavanone (a class of flavonoids) glycoside is found abundantly in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons tangerines and limes and is known to possess significant benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, antioxidant, growth promoting, anticancer and immunological properties. Hesperidin enhances mucosal and humoral immunity by increasing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers, lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen and bursa) indices, as well as improving anti-avian influenza and anti-Newcastle disease antibody titres in poultry. In addition, hesperidin is a strong chain-breaking antioxidant that provides potent cellular antioxidant defence against the damaging effects induced by peroxide hydrogen. As a natural antioxidant, hesperidin could help mitigate heat stress during summer by decreasing heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, and quenching reactive oxygen species generated by summer heat stress. The aim of this review was to elucidate the biological effects and health benefits of hesperidin as an alternative of synthetic immune boosters and growth promoters in poultry diets.
Identification of new effective strategies for improving crop yields under environmental stresses such as drought represent key priorities for researchers around the globe. In the present study, the effects of different methods of exogenous selenium (Se) supply viz. Se seed priming, Se fertigation and Se foliar spray on yield of spring wheat under normal and water deficit conditions were investigated. Two field experiments were conducted using one indigenous drought-tolerant genotype (Kohistan-97) and a sensitive genotype (Pasban-90) to understand the role of Se in improving wheat yield. The experiments were laid out in a split-split plot design with three replications during consecutive years (2011/12 and 2012/13) and the plants were exposed to water stress by withholding irrigation at two different wheat growth stages, viz. tillering and anthesis. It was noted that drought stress significantly affected the yield attributes of wheat; however, exogenous Se supply was observed to be helpful in improving the drought tolerance potential and yield of water-stressed wheat plants through maintenance of plant water status. A significant increase in wheat yield by Se supply was also noted under normal conditions. The normal plants fertigated with Se maintained the highest values for number of productive tillers, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand-grain weight, biological and grain yield with no significant difference from Se foliar spray at the tillering stage, which was found to be the most effective method of exogenous Se supply for improving wheat yield under water deficit conditions. Moreover, Se fertigation and foliar spray resulted in the maximum accumulation of Se in shoots and gave the highest net return and cost-benefit ratio under drought stress conditions. The present study is one of the few reports on the role of Se in alleviating water stress for obtaining maximum profit in field grown spring wheat.
Newcastle Disease (ND) is regarded as one of the major diseases of poultry because of the devastating losses that the virulent form of the ND virus can impose on both commercial and domestic chickens. However, the disease can be controlled through the administration of effective vaccines. Almost all the commercially available ND vaccines require refrigeration and begin to deteriorate rapidly after 1-2 hours if left at room temperature (around 25°C). Subsequently, because maintaining an adequate supply of refrigerated facilities may be a difficult task in many countries with unreliable electrical supplies, the development and large scale production of an effective thermostable ND vaccine seems imperative to support the poultry industry. Such vaccines should be resilient to damage associated with either very cold or hot environments so there are no concerns about the viability of the vaccine in response to temperatures fluctuations that can occur in extreme environments when the difference in temperature during cold and warm seasons can vary greatly. In the following review paper, the development of such a vaccine is discussed, including molecular characterisation, organ tropism of vaccine strains, production, as well as administration methods and their efficacy. It addition, the potential payback has been calculated alongside opportunities provided by removing vaccines from cold chain storage.
Knowledge about genetic diversity among Brassica napus cultivars developed for many growing regions and their possible use as potential inbred lines for hybrid seed production is limited. We studied the genetic diversity and relationships among B. napus accessions using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) markers, which preferentially amplify open reading frames. A total of 60 spring-type B. napus accessions were screened using 20 SRAP primers, which revealed 162 polymorphic fragments with an average of eight markers per primer combination. Genetic similarity estimates ranged from 40 to 100, which indicated sufficient diversity among the accessions. The majority of the accessions were uniquely identified by the markers with the exception of near-isogenic inbred lines. Cluster analysis displayed five major groups. The first major cluster comprised 23 accessions mostly of Australian origin, whereas the second cluster included 13 accessions mostly of Canadian origin. The accessions in the first and second clusters were identified as maintainers of cytoplasmic male sterility. The two restorer lines R-111 and R-101 along with their corresponding backcross progeny constituted the third cluster. Scandinavian cultivars made the fourth separate cluster. One cultivar Salam and its respective inbred line were the most divergent lines. Variations in the number of markers between open-pollinated cultivars and their respective selfed inbred lines were also observed. The clustering pattern mostly supported their respective pedigree and characteristic traits. Genetic diversity in genetically distinct groups in the tested maintainer and restorer lines can be exploited for hybrid development in B. napus.
To study the outcome of endonasal endoscopic surgery for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sinonasal tract over a five-year follow-up period.
Four consecutive patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sinonasal tract, who had undergone endonasal endoscopic surgery, were reviewed regarding age at diagnosis, sex, primary site, tumour-node-metastasis staging, treatment modalities, histopathological findings, duration of follow up, distant metastases and treatment outcome.
All patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage and had post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy. Three patients underwent endoscopic endonasal resection and one endoscopic assisted craniofacial resection. The most common primary site was the ethmoid sinus (three patients). Three patients had no evidence of recurrence. One patient who had undergone partial clearance via endoscopic endonasal resection developed cervical node metastases a year after treatment; this patient also developed distant metastases.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is difficult to treat. Sinonasal tract tumours can be resected via endoscopic endonasal resection or endoscopic assisted craniofacial resection, but prolonged follow up is advisable. Radiotherapy is an important adjuvant treatment.
The present study considers the influence of the trophic status of three Kashmir Himalayan lakes on the patterns of helminth infracommunities in populations of three species of fish during 2006 to 2008. Data were collected from three lakes of differing trophic status in the Kashmir Himalayas, namely Anchar, a hyper(eu)trophic lake; Dal, a eutrophic lake; and Manasbal, a meso(eu)trophic lake. Three species of fish examined included the native fish Schizothorax niger Heckel and two exotic species – Carassius carassius (Linnaeus) and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. The analysis of data showed a clear habitat effect on the abundance pattern of helminth species, thus revealing lake-specific differences in parasite infracommunities of both S. niger and C. carassius. Helminth infracommunity richness was the highest in host populations from the Anchar lake compared to other two lakes. Low values in the Manasbal lake emphasize the low diversity of their helminth infracommunities. On the other hand, there was no observed pattern of community structure in the case of C. carpio in the three lake sites. However due to bias in sampling there was no distinct effect of fish body size on parasite infracommunity structure, although the present results do show that fish parasite data can be meaningful in diagnosing changes in the trophic condition of eutrophic lakes.
The biochemical basis of resistance to the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase
(ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide diclofop-methyl was investigated in a
resistant wild oat population (R1), which does not exhibit a resistant
ACCase. Rates of foliar uptake and translocation of
[14C]-diclofop were the same in the R1 vs. susceptible (S)
populations. However, the level of phytotoxic diclofop acid was always found
to be lower in the R1 vs. S plants, with a concomitant higher level (up to
1.7-fold) of nontoxic polar diclofop metabolites in R1 relative to the S
plants. These results indicate that a non–target-site-based mechanism of
enhanced rate of diclofop acid metabolism confers resistance in population
R1. Moreover, the high-performance liquid chromotography elution profile of
the major diclofop metabolites in R1 is similar to that of wheat, suggesting
resistance in individuals of population R1 involves a wheat-like
detoxification system mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. In
addition, lower level of tissue diclofop acid was also observed using
nonradioactive ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
analysis in resistant individuals of three other resistant wild oat
populations (R2, R3, and R4) known to posses ACCase gene resistance
mutations. These results establish that either one or at least two
independent resistance mechanisms (target-site ACCase resistance mutations
and non–target-site enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism) can be present
in individual wild oat plants.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
Hamiltonian system is a special case of dynamical system. Mostly it is used for potential shaping of mechanical systems stabilization. In our present work, we are using Hamiltonian dynamics to study and control the fuel slosh inside spacecraft tank. Sloshing is the phenomenon which is related with the movement of fluid inside a container in micro and macro scale as well. Sloshing of fluid occurs whenever the frequency of container movement matches with the natural frequency of fluid inside the container. Such type of synchronization may cause the structural damage or could be a reason of moving object's attitude disturbance. In spacecraft technology, the equivalent mechanical model for sloshing is common to use for the representation of fuel slosh. This mechanical model may contain a model of pendulum or a mass attached with a spring. In this article, we are using mass-spring mechanical model coupled with rigid body to derive the equations for Hamiltonian system. Casimir functions are used for proposed model. Conditions for the stability and instability of moving mass are derived using Lyapunov function along with Casimir functions. Simulation work is presented to strengthen the derived results and to distribute the stable and unstable regions graphically.
To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults.
Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors.
All fourteen states in Malaysia.
Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006.
The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23·3 to 24·1 kg/m2 for men and from 24·0 to 25·4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased.
Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23·0 kg/m2 in men and 24·0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.
Hard biological materials such as bone and nacre exhibit remarkable mechanical performance, particularly in terms of fracture toughness, despite the weakness of their constituents. Mechanical performance of nacre and bone can largely be explained through their staggered microstructure where stiff inclusions of high aspect ratio are embedded in a softer matrix. The mineral inclusions provide hardness and stiffness while the organic matrix introduces ductility. The high performance of these natural structures is unmatched by any synthetic ceramic, which therefore makes them a substantial source of inspiration for development of new artificial materials. While the modulus and strength of these structures are well understood, fracture toughness remains unclear and controversial. In this work, chevron double cantilever beam fracture tests show that the interfaces in nacre have a low toughness, comparable to that of the tablets (in J terms). This highlights the important role of structural design on fracture toughness. At the next step, a fracture model is presented to explain the toughness amplification observed in natural staggered structures based on two essential extrinsic toughening mechanisms: crack bridging and process zone. The modeling results show that toughness can be further amplified by incorporating high concentrations of small inclusions with high aspect ratio. This conclusion is applicable to construction and optimization of natural and biomimetic composites.
Pieris brassicae (Linn.) is a destructive cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. It is present wherever its host plants occur, and it is considered to be one of the most widely distributed of all the Lepidoptera. We investigated the affect of various host plants on the food consumption and utilization by P. brassicae. We quantified consumption of food, larval duration, pupal duration and weight on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and mustard (Brassica campestris) under laboratory conditions. Insect-host relationships can be better understood by knowing the rate of food consumption, its digestibility and conversion of food eaten to body tissue. The consumption of food generally increased with the advancement of larval age. In our study we found that consumption of food was highest on radish and lowest on broccoli. The highest consumption of a particular host does not always indicate greater suitability of that host, until and unless other factors like consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), approximate digestibility (AD) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) are also considered. In the current investigation, factors like CI, RGR, ECI and ECD were highest on cabbage. Low body weight of pupa is associated with rapid development. On cabbage, the weight of pupa of both sexes was found lowest. Thus, from the present study, it can be concluded that cabbage is a more suitable host for P. brassicae than other host plants evaluated. Hence, on cabbage, the values of Waldbauer indices were highest and P. brassicae developed with a faster rate.