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Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
The current study evaluated growth performance and digestion responses of finishing bulls fed diets containing 825 g/kg flint maize [dry matter (DM) basis] ground to medium (1.66 mm; MG) or coarse particle sizes (2.12 mm; CG), with added monensin (26 mg/kg; DM basis; MON) or a blend of essential oils (BEO) + exogenous α-amylase (AM; 90 mg/kg + 560 mg/kg commercial product, respectively, DM basis). In Expt 1, 256 Nellore bulls were blocked by initial body weight (BW) (360 ± 11.7 kg) and assigned to 48 pens in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Effect of a maize particle size × feed additive interaction was not detected for final BW, DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency. The DMI was greater for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON. Final BW and ADG tended to be greater for bulls fed CG than MG maize. An interaction was detected for hot carcass weight which was 11 kg heavier for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON in diets containing CG, but not MG particle size. In Expt 2, four ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were offered the same treatments as Expt 1, in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Intake of most nutrients was greater for steers fed CG than steers fed MG maize. In summary, feeding bulls CG maize increased growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with MG. The combination of BEO + AM resulted in heavier carcass weights compared with MON supplementation when included in diets containing CG maize.
The effects of growing pinto peanut mixed with elephant grass-based pastures are still little known. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the performance of herbage yield, nutritive value of forage and animal responses to levels of pinto peanut forage mass mixed with elephant grass in low-input systems. Three grazing systems were evaluated: (i) elephant grass-based (control); (ii) pinto peanut, low-density forage yield (63 g/kg of dry matter – DM) + elephant grass; and (iii) pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield (206 g/kg DM) + elephant grass. The experimental design was completely randomized with the three treatments (grazing systems) and three replicates (paddocks) in split-plot grazing cycles. Forage samples were collected to evaluate the pasture and animal responses. Leaf blades of elephant grass and the other companion grasses of pinto peanut were collected to analyse the crude protein, in vitro digestible organic matter and total digestible nutrients. The pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield + elephant grass treatment was found to give the best results in terms of herbage yield, forage intake and stocking rate, as well as having higher crude protein contents for both elephant grass and the other grasses, followed by pinto peanut with low-density forage yield + elephant grass and finally elephant grass alone. Better results were found with the grass–legume system for pasture and animal responses.
Protein is the most costly nutrient in fish feed, and while diets offered in the early stages of development typically have high levels of CP, they do not always correspond to the real requirements of the animals. Thus, research that seeks to learn the true nutritional requirements of fish is fundamental to improving commercial fish culture. The present study evaluated the protein requirements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under larviculture. Fish performance, gene expression for digestive enzymes and their enzymatic activity and stress response to air exposure were analyzed. Four experimental diets differing in CP level were formulated: 30%, 36%, 42% and 48%. Fish larvae were fed the experimental diets during development and sampled 10, 20 and 30 days after the beginning of the experiment for performance, gene expression and enzymatic activity. At sampling time 30, stress resistance was also evaluated by means of an air exposure test. At sampling time 10, CP levels between 36% and 48% could be used for a better performance. During this period, pepsinogen expression was greater for 30% CP, intermediate for 42% and lower for 36% and 48%. After this initial period, diets of between 30% and 42% CP are recommended for better performance. At sampling time 20, gene expression for digestive enzymes and their enzymatic activity were similar for all diets tested. At sampling time 30, the diet of 42% CP induced both greater pepsinogen expression and pepsin activity. Survival after the air exposure test after 30 days of feeding was influenced by CP level in the diet, with the highest survival being for fish fed with 36% CP. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that dietary CP influences digestive enzyme gene expression and activity, and suggest that the best CP levels for Nile tilapia larviculture vary depending on larval stage.
The objective of the current paper was to apply mixed models to adjust the growth curve of quail lines for meat and laying hens and present the rates of instantaneous, relative and absolute growth. A database was used with birth weight records up to the 148th day of female quail of the lines for meat and posture. The models evaluated were Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz and the types of residues were constant, combined, proportional and exponential. The Gompertz model with the combined residue presented the best fit. Both strains present a high correlation between the parameters asymptotic weight (A) and average growth rate (k). The two strains presented a different growth profile. However, growth rates allow greater discernment of growth profiles. The meat line presented a higher growth rate (6.95 g/day) than the lineage for laying (3.65 g/day). The relative growth rate was higher for lineage for laying (0.15%) in relation to the lineage for meat (0.13%). The inflection point of both lines is on the first third of the growth curve (up to 15 days). All results suggest that changes in management or nutrition could optimize quail production.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity is a useful model for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) studies. However, there is limited data on its initiation and progression. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the onset of metabolic and histopathological features of NAFLD and its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in this model. To perform this study, Swiss mice pups were neonatally injected with MSG (4 g/kg/day, s.c.) or equiosmolar saline and followed up to 60, 120 or 180 days old. At each age, blood, liver, as well as periepididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads were collected for morphometric, biochemical and histological analyses, the later according to NAFLD activity score. MSG mice presented hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity at all ages, but peripheral insulin-resistance was verified only in 120- and 180-day-old mice. Hepatic total fat and triglycerides content were higher in MSG mice at all ages. Accordingly, histopathological analysis showed that 60-day-old MSG mice had microvesicular steatosis with occasional ballooning, which evolved into NASH from 120 days old. Retroperitoneal fat accumulation was the only variable to independently correlate with NAFLD activity total score upon multivariate analysis (R2=71.45%). There were no differences in IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels among groups. Overall, this study shows that NAFLD is a precocious outcome in MSG-obese mice, whereas the period comprised between 60 and 120 days old seems to be a crucial metabolic window for comprehending pathophysiological events involved in NAFLD-to-NASH progression in this model.
Several gold deposits hosted mainly by Variscan granites and Precambrian to Palaeozoic metasediments occur in the northwestern part of Portugal. Most of these deposits were mined by the Romans (in the period I BC to II AD) as open pits and surface galleries. The Castromil-Serra da Quinta gold deposit is an important example of such a mined site; it occurs in the Dúrico-Beirã Au province located in the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) in the western branch of European Variscan belt, mainly on the eastern flank of the Valongo anticline. Open pits and underground galleries at Castromil-Serra da Quinta exploited the gossan formed from the weathering of primary mineralization. The gossan is composed essentially of goethite, scorodite and clay minerals. A recent drilling campaign at Castromil-Serra da Quinta has provided samples of the primary mineralization below the oxidation level. Different modes of gold occurrence are defined based on metallographic studies of both the gossan and drill cores. Gold I occurs encapsulated in primary sulfide minerals, mainly arsenopyrite and pyrite; Gold II is also associated with the main primary sulfides, but occurs along grain boundaries and in microfractures of the sulfides or in associated quartz veins; and Gold III occurs as free gold particles in iron oxides within the gossan. In the gossan samples, it is difficult to distinguish whether the gold particles hosted in oxides correspond to Gold I, Gold II, or both, so these particles are described as Gold I–II and they are commonly surrounded by very much smaller particles of Gold III. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) data for the different gold particles reveal that Gold I is poorer in Ag (~15.5–39.76%) than Gold II (37.46–51.45%), whereas Gold III corresponds to native gold (<16.11% Ag). Gold III is thought to reflect gold enrichment in the upper level of the deposit, resulting from weathering processes that affected the primary Au (Bi) mineralization.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether a reduction in dietary crude protein (CP) and genotype affects animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits of beef cattle at different stages of the feedlot. Twenty-two Nellore and 22 crossbred F1 Angus × Nellore (Nellore: 8 months, initial body weight (iBW) = 212.7 kg; Crossbred: 8 months, iBW = 226.1 kg) were used in this experiment. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with six replicates, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The factors were two genotypes (Nellore and Crossbred) and three CP concentrations (100, 120 and 140 g/kg dry matter [DM]). The experimental period lasted 224 day, being divided into two stages (Backgrounding = 112 day, and Finishing = 112 day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to evaluate their carcass characteristics. Similar patterns were observed during backgrounding and finishing phases on intake and average daily gain (ADG) regarding genotype. Intakes of DM, organic matter, CP, neutral detergent fibre, non-fibre carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients, ADG (kg/day) and feed efficiency were greater in Crossbred animals than Nellore in both phases. During the backgrounding phase, dietary CP did not influence DM intake. However, a linear effect of CP on ADG was observed in the backgrounding phase. During finishing, Nellore cattle fed 100 g CP/kg DM presented lower ADG than Nellore fed 120 and 140 g CP/kg DM. Crossbred animals were heavier than Nellore at the beginning and end of the trial. Crossbred animals also gained more carcass, retained more CP and fat, and had a greater subcutaneous fat thickness during the experiment compared with Nellore. There was a quadratic effect of dietary CP on retained CP and dressing. The current study found that crossbred animals (F1 Angus × Nellore) not only had greater performance, but also better carcass traits compared with Nellore, representing an option for increasing productivity. Also, it is possible to adjust diets according to phase. During the backgrounding stage, 140 g CP/kg DM should be used, being reduced to 120 g CP/kg DM during the finishing stage of feedlot for Nellore and to 100 g CP/kg DM for Crossbred, without affecting performance adversely.
Globally, the Cerrado is the most diverse savanna in terms of plant species, as well as one of the most threatened as the result of human impact; it is therefore considered a priority area for conservation. Some areas of the Cerrado have still not been subject to botanical collections and detailed studies, the Jalapão region being one of these. We describe four recently rediscovered species previously known only from type specimens collected at least 160 years ago: Hyptis caduca Epling (Lamiaceae), Duguetia rotundifolia R.E.Fr. (Annonaceae), Diospyros ovalis Hiern (Ebenaceae) and Rhabdodendron gardnerianum (Benth.) Sandwith (Rhabdodendraceae). Comments on their ecology, conservation status and occurrence are provided, together with a distribution map. New morphological data have been recorded, and all species are considered to be under some degree of threat. These rediscoveries highlight the importance of further fieldwork in poorly sampled and highly biodiverse regions such as Jalapão and neighbouring areas, as well as the urgent need for conservation of the highly threatened Cerrado biome.
The canine golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model is the best animal model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Considering the importance of glucose metabolism in the muscles, the existence of metabolic and endocrine alterations in a wide range of muscular dystrophies, and the pre-existing relationship between blood insulin concentration and muscular atrophy, the present study aimed to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response in GRMD dogs. A total of eighteen golden retriever dogs were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: healthy/control (G1), female GRMD carriers (G2), and male dogs affected by GRMD (G3). Higher plasma resting glucose levels (P = 0·0047) were seen in G2 and G3 compared with G1, as was the case for minimum (P = <0·0001), mean (P = 0·0002) and maximum (P = 0·0359) glucose values for G3 compared with G1. Fructosamine concentrations were in accordance with reference values found in the literature for dogs. Insulin levels were lower in G3 compared with G1 (P = 0·0065); however, there was no evidence of insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment index values obtained. As for the evaluation of postprandial responses, fluctuations of glucose (P = 0·0007) and insulin (P = 0·0149) were observed in G1 and G2, while in G3 the values remained constant. The results allowed us to identify metabolic changes related to carbohydrate metabolism in GRMD dogs, highlighting the importance of adequate food management for these animals.
The present study aims to assess the environmental quality of six estuaries in north-eastern Brazil, using biochemical composition and quantity of organic matter in tropical sediments. Samples were collected monthly during spring low tide from August 2011 to July 2012, in the mid-littoral. Concentrations of organic matter and its biochemical composition reflected the degree of anthropogenic pressure. Although total concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates were similar among estuaries with contrasting levels of anthropogenic pressure, the protein to carbohydrates (PRT : CHO) ratio effectively reflected the trophic state of these areas. PRT : CHO ratios >1 were observed in all studied areas suggesting eutrophic conditions or an initial stage of eutrophication in all of them. Low Chl-a/Phaeo ratios may be associated with the level of eutrophication of each area, however it may also reflect the natural productivity or the presence of mangrove debris. These results were compared with those obtained in previous environmental assessments of the same estuarine areas using the AZTI Marine Biotic Index and monitoring reports showing good agreement. The present study confirmed for the first time in tropical estuarine areas that the biochemical approach can be successfully used to assess the trophic state of the benthic compartment.
In this study, diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in Wistar rats during pregnancy and maintained in the postpartum period (PP) and we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal immunohistochemical and morphometric studies from different groups: G1 (non-pregnant control rats), G2 (non-pregnant diabetic rats), G3 (control mothers) and G4 (diabetic mothers). We found that there were no differences in relation to SBP, but there was a tendency for reduction in GFR from G4 compared with the other groups (G). There was increased total kidney weight/body weight ratio of G4 compared with other G. There were increase in glomerular tuft area in G3 and G4 compared with G1 and G2. G2 and G4 showed even higher percentage of cortical collagen. G3 showed increased glomerular proliferating cells compared with G1 and G2, while in G4 this number was smaller than G3. Cell proliferation was higher in the tubulointerstitial (TBI) compartment from G4. Glomerular and TBI α-smooth muscle actin expression was increased in G4 compared with other G. The glomerular p-p38 expression showed a pattern similar to proliferation cell nuclear antigen, with a reduction of p-p38 in G4 relative to other G. The immunoreactivity of p-JNK was higher in both the glomeruli and TBI compartment in G4 compared with G1, G2 and G3. The DM induced during pregnancy and maintained in the PP resulted in renal structural and functional changes to mothers. In addition, altered mitogen-activated protein kinase expression in association with these changes may play an important role in renal damage observed in the present investigation.
American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage – Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL−1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.
We describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of preantral ovarian follicles from three recently recognized Saimiri species: S. macrodon, S. cassiquiarensis and S. vanzolinii; the last one a threatened species. Ovaries from four adult monkeys were evaluated: one pair from a pregnant S. macrodon, two ovarian pairs from S. cassiquiarensis females (one of them pregnant), and one left ovary from a senile S. vanzolinii, applying classical histology. Follicular preantral population was quantified and morphology and morphometry of primordial, primary and secondary follicles were evaluated. Follicular preantral population varied among species, being 347,153 in the ovaries of the S. macrodon, 270,342 and 278,376 in the ovaries of both adult non-pregnant and pregnant S. cassiquiarensis females, and 28,149 in the ovary from a senile S. vanzolinii. Most follicles were at primordial or transition stages, except for the senile S. vanzolinii female, which presented the lowest percentages of primordial and transition follicles when compared with primary and secondary ones. Most preantral follicles (>70%) were morphologically normal in the ovaries from all studied S. macrodon and S. cassiquiarensis females, but the ovary of the senile S. vanzolinii female presented a significant decrease in the percentage of normal follicles (primordial: 61%, transition: 52%, primary: 54%, and secondary: 48%). In general, follicular diameter increased significantly from primordial to transition, and subsequently from primary to secondary follicles.
The production of pork with moderate amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) without an increase in subcutaneous fat is highly desirable for the meat industry. Several studies indicate that dietary protein reduction during the growing–finishing period of pigs enhances IMF content, but its consequence on carcass fat deposition is still contradictory. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of reduced protein diets (RPD), corrected or not with the limiting amino acid lysine, on subcutaneous fat deposition from pigs with distinct genotypes are mediated by adipose membranes biophysical properties. In total, 36 crossbred (Large White×Landrace×Pietrain – a lean genotype) and purebred (Alentejana breed – a fatty genotype) male pigs were randomly assigned to the control group, the RPD group or the reduced protein diet equilibrated for lysine (RPDL) group, allowing a 2×3 factorial arrangement (n=6). Backfat thickness and total fatty acid content were higher in Alentejana relative to crossbred pigs. Although dietary treatments did not change backfat thickness, RPD and RPDL increased total fatty acids content of subcutaneous fat. In order to understand this effect, adipose tissue membranes isolated from pig’s subcutaneous fat were assayed for glycerol permeability and fluidity, using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1-(4-(trimethylamino)-phenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) probes. The glycerol transport across adipose membranes was not mediated by aquaglyceroporins and remained unchanged across dietary groups. Regardless of lysine correction, RPD increased membrane fluidity at the hydrocarbon region (lower DPH fluorescence anisotropy) in both genotypes of pigs. This result was associated with a lower ratio between oleic acid and linoleic acid on membrane’s fatty acid composition. Adipose membrane’s cholesterol content was independent from genotype and diet. Taken together, the present study shows that dietary protein reduction is successful in maintaining backfat thickness, although a negative side effect was observed on total fatty acids in subcutaneous fat, which may be due to changes in the fluidity of adipose membranes.