To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
Persistence of the embryonic “fifth aortic arch” in postnatal life is a rare, enigmatic – and at times controversial – condition, with variable anatomical forms and physiological consequences. First described in humans over 40 years ago by Van Praagh, the condition was labelled the “great pretender” by Gerlis 25 years later, because of its apparent propensity to mimic anatomically similar structures. Despite many subsequent case reports citing the condition, the true developmental origin of these structures remains unresolved, and has been the subject of debate among embryologists for more than a century. A persistent fifth aortic arch has been defined as an extrapericardial structure, arising from the ascending aorta opposite or proximal to the brachiocephalic artery, and terminating in the dorsal aorta or pulmonary arteries via a persistently patent arterial duct. This description may therefore encompass various anatomical forms, such as a unilateral double-lumen aortic arch, an unrestrictive aortopulmonary shunt, or a critical vascular channel for either the systemic or pulmonary circulation. The physiological properties of these vessels, such as their response to prostaglandins, may also be unpredictable. In this article, we demonstrate a number of cases that fulfil the contemporary definition of “persistent fifth aortic arch” while acknowledging the embryological controversies associated with this term. We also outline the key diagnostic features, particularly with respect to the use of new cross-sectional imaging techniques.
The University of Georgia (USA) is partnering with the University of Padova (Italy) for a dual Master’s degree program in sustainable agriculture, promoting collaboration on some of the biggest challenges facing agriculture today. This innovative program which was launched during 2016 provides students with outstanding training and a unique opportunity to learn about the challenges, opportunities, and leading edges of precision agriculture on another continent – an experience which will serve graduates well when they enter the job market in an increasingly global economy. This paper presents the goals of the program, the curriculum, and describes the opportunities available to prospective students. In addition it describes the process of developing the dual degree which can be used as guide by others wishing to develop similar programs.
Epidemiological studies suggest a higher prevalence of congenital malformations in children conceived through assisted reproductive technologies. There are a few studies that address CHD specifically and most have examined data from registries. We examined the relationship between CHD and assisted conception using data collected in a specialist paediatric cardiac service in the United Kingdom.
Between April, 2010 and July, 2011, the parents of children attending paediatric cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton Hospital, London, were invited to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the nature of their child’s conception, the route for their original referral, and a number of potential confounding exposures. “Cases” were defined as children diagnosed with one or more carefully defined CHDs and “controls” as those with normal hearts.
Of 894 new attendees with complete data, half of them were cases (n=410, 45.9%). The overall prevalence of assisted conception was 5.4% (n=44). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a non-significant increase in the crude odds for the use of assisted reproduction (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.66–2.22) in this group. After adjustment for gestation, parity, year of birth, and maternal age, the odds ratio reduced (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.48–1.88). Increased rates of assisted conception were observed in a number of CHD subgroups, although no significant differences were found.
These findings do not suggest an overall association between CHD and assisted reproduction in this population.
To better understand the regional tephra stratigraphy and chronology of northern Nevada and southern Oregon, tephras in archived cores, taken as part of the Steens Mountain Prehistory Project from four lakes, Diamond Pond, Fish and Wildhorse lakes in southeastern Oregon and Blue Lake in northwestern Nevada, were reexamined using more advanced electron microprobe analytical technology. The best preserved and most complete core from Fish Lake along with Wildhorse Lake hosted two tephras from Mt. Mazama (Llao Rock and the Climactic Mazama), a mid-Holocene basaltic tephra from Diamond Craters, Oregon, two Medicine Lake tephras and an unexpected late Holocene Chaos Crags (Mt. Lassen volcanic center) tephra which was also found in the other lakes. Blue Lake was the only lake that hosted a Devils Hill tephra from the Three Sisters volcano in west central Oregon. Another tephra from the Three Sisters Volcano previously reported in sediments of Twin Lakes in NE Oregon, has now been confirmed as Rock Mesa tephra. The Chaos Crags, Devils Hill and Rock Mesa tephras are important late Holocene stratigraphic markers for central and eastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada.
Milrinone may be an appropriate adjuvant therapy for infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We aimed to describe the effect of milrinone administration on right and left ventricular function in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension not responding to inhaled nitric oxide after 4 hours of administration.
Materials and methods
This is a retrospective review of infants born after or at 34 weeks of gestation with persistent pulmonary hypertension who received milrinone treatment. The primary endpoint was the effect of milrinone on myocardial performance and haemodynamics, including right and left ventricular outputs, tissue Doppler velocities, right ventricle and septal strain, and strain rate. Secondary endpoints examined included duration of inhaled nitric oxide and oxygen support.
A total of 17 infants with a mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of 39.8 (2.0) weeks and 3.45 (0.39) kilograms, respectively, were included in the study. The first echocardiogram was performed 15 hours after the commencement of nitric oxide inhalation. Milrinone treatment was started at a median time of 1 hour after the echocardiogram and was associated with an increase in left ventricular output (p=0.04), right ventricular output (p=0.004), right ventricle strain (p=0.01) and strain rate (p=0.002), and left ventricle s` (p<0.001) and a` (p=0.02) waves. There was a reduction in nitric oxide dose and oxygen requirement over the subsequent 72 hours (all p<0.05).
The use of milrinone as an adjunct to nitric oxide is worth further exploration, with preliminary evidence suggesting an improvement in both oxygenation and myocardial performance in this group of infants.
Composites of silicone rubber and vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes were produced by capillary infiltration of PDMS. The electrical properties of silicone membranes and carbon nanotubes were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. Gauge factor was evaluated by different ways from Nyquist plots, and reached values up 8.
Ordered carbon nanotube (CNT) growth by deposition of nanoparticle catalysts using dip pen nanolithography (DPN) is presented. DPN is a direct write, tip based lithography technique capable of multi-component deposition of a wide range of materials with nanometer precision. A NanoInk NLP 2000 is used to pattern different catalytic nanoparticle solutions on various substrates. To generate a uniform pattern of nanoparticle clusters, various conditions need to be considered. These parameters include: the humidity in the vessel, temperature, and tip-surface dwell time. By patterning different nanoparticle solutions next to each other, identical growth conditions can be compared for different catalysts in a streamlined analysis process. Fe, Ni, and Co nanoparticle solutions patterned on silicon, mica, and graphite substrates serve as nucleation sites for CNT growth. The CNTs were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction. Each nanoparticle patterned substrate is placed in a tube furnace held at 725°C during CNT growth. The carbon source used in the growth chamber is toluene. The toluene is injected at a rate of 5 mL/hr. Growth is observed for Fe and Ni nanoparticle patterns, but is lacking for the Co patterns. The results of these reactions provide important information regarding efficient and highly reproducible mechanisms for CNT growth.
Recent studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous media have showed that water can significantly affect the tube mechanical properties. CNTs under hydrostatic compression can preserve their elastic properties up to large pressure values, while exhibiting exceptional resistance to mechanical loadings. It was experimentally observed that CNTs with encapsulated linear carbon chains (LCCs), when subjected to high hydrostatic pressure values, present irreversible red shifts in some of their vibrational frequencies. In order to address the cause of this phenomenon, we have carried out fully atomistic reactive (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for model structures mimicking the experimental conditions. We have considered the cases of finite and infinite (cyclic boundary conditions) CNTs filled with LCCs (LCC@CNTs) of different lengths (from 9 up to 40 atoms). Our results show that increasing the hydrostatic pressure causes the CNT to be deformed in an inhomogeneous way due to the LCC presence. The LCC/CNT interface regions exhibit convex curvatures, which results in more reactive sites, thus favoring the formation of covalent chemical bonds between the chain and the nanotube. This process is irreversible with the newly formed bonds continuing to exist even after releasing the external pressure and causing an irreversibly red shift in the chain vibrational modes from 1850 to 1500 cm−1.
Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on carbon fiber surface in order to provide a way to tailor the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the fiber-resin interface of a polymer composite. As the deposition temperature of the nanotubes is very high, an elevated exposure time can lead to degradation of the carbon fiber. To overcome this obstacle we have developed a deposition technique where the fiber is exposed to an atmosphere of growth for just one minute, and different concentrations of precursor solution were used.
Laboratory-based surveillance data is essential for monitoring trends in the incidence of enteric disease. Current Canadian human enteric surveillance systems report only confirmed cases of human enteric disease and are often unable to capture the number of negative test results. Data from 9116 hospital stool specimens from the Waterloo Region in Canada, with a mixed urban and rural population of about 500 000 were analysed to investigate the use of stool submission data and its role in reporting bias when determining the incidence of enteric disease. The proportion of stool specimens positive for Campylobacter spp. was highest in the 15–29 years age group, and in the 5–14 years age group for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7. By contrast, the age-specific incidence rates were highest for all three pathogens in the 0–4 years age group which also had the highest stool submission rate. This suggests that variations in age-specific stool submission rates are influencing current interpretation of surveillance data.