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The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is commonly used to assist with post-concussion return-to-play decisions for athletes. Additional investigation is needed to determine whether embedded indicators used to determine the validity of scores are influenced by the presence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs).
This study examined standard and novel ImPACT validity indicators in a large sample of high school athletes (n = 33,772) with or without self-reported ND.
Overall, 7.1% of athletes’ baselines were judged invalid based on standard ImPACT validity criteria. When analyzed by group (healthy, ND), there were significantly more invalid ImPACT baselines for athletes with an ND diagnosis or special education history (between 9.7% and 54.3% for standard and novel embedded validity criteria) when compared to athletes without NDs. ND history was a significant predictor of invalid baseline performance above and beyond other demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and sport), although it accounted for only a small percentage of variance. Multivariate base rates are presented stratified for age, sex, and ND.
These data provide evidence of higher than normal rates of invalid baselines in athletes who report ND (based on both the standard and novel embedded validity indicators). Although ND accounted for a small percentage of variance in the prediction of invalid performance, negative consequences (e.g., extended time out of sports) of incorrect decision-making should be considered for those with neurodevelopmental conditions. Also, reasons for the overall increase noted here, such as decreased motivation, “sandbagging”, or disability-related cognitive deficit, require additional investigation.
Dinosaur body fossil material is rare in Scotland, previously known almost exclusively from the Great Estuarine Group on the Isle of Skye. We report the first unequivocal dinosaur fossil from the Isle of Eigg, belonging to a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) taxon of uncertain affinity. The limb bone NMS G.2020.10.1 is incomplete, but through a combination of anatomical comparison and osteohistology, we determine it most likely represents a stegosaur fibula. The overall proportions and cross-sectional geometry are similar to the fibulae of thyreophorans. Examination of the bone microstructure reveals a high degree of remodelling and randomly distributed longitudinal canals in the remaining primary cortical bone. This contrasts with the histological signal expected of theropod or sauropod limb bones, but is consistent with previous studies of thyreophorans, specifically stegosaurs. Previous dinosaur material from Skye and broadly contemporaneous sites in England belongs to this group, including Loricatosaurus and Sarcolestes and a number of indeterminate stegosaur specimens. Theropods such as Megalosaurus and sauropods such as Cetiosaurus are also known from these localities. Although we find strong evidence for a stegosaur affinity, diagnostic features are not observed on NMS G.2020.10.1, preventing us from referring it to any known genera. The presence of this large-bodied stegosaur on Eigg adds a significant new datapoint for dinosaur distribution in the Middle Jurassic of Scotland.
We report two cases of respiratory toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection in fully vaccinated UK born adults following travel to Tunisia in October 2019. Both patients were successfully treated with antibiotics and neither received diphtheria antitoxin. Contact tracing was performed following a risk assessment but no additional cases were identified. This report highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for re-emerging infections in patients with a history of travel to high-risk areas outside Europe.
Introduction: Determining fluid status prior to resuscitation provides a more accurate guide for appropriate fluid administration in the setting of undifferentiated hypotension. Emergency Department (ED) point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been proposed as a potential non-invasive, rapid, repeatable investigation to ascertain inferior vena cava (IVC) characteristics. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using PoCUS to measure IVC size and collapsibility. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre international study investigating PoCUS in ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension. We prospectively collected data on IVC size and collapsibility using a standard data collection form in 6 centres. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a clinically useful (determinate) scan defined as a clearly visible intrahepatic IVC, measurable for size and collapse. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: A total of 138 scans were attempted on 138 patients; 45.7% were women and the median age was 58 years old. Overall, one hundred twenty-nine scans (93.5%; 95% CI 87.9 to 96.7%) were determinate. 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for IVC size, and 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for collapsibility. Conclusion: In this analysis of 138 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension, the vast majority of PoCUS scans to investigate IVC characteristics were determinate. Future work should include analysis of the value of IVC size and collapsibility in determining fluid status in this group.
[Improvement in daily accessible risk assessments]
We show enhanced patient safety through a quality improvement methodology project in an intensive psychiatric care unit of a psychiatric hospital in southwest of Scotland. This is a project as part of the national patient safety programme in mental health. The Scottish Patient Safety Programme for Mental Health aims to systematically reduce harm experienced by people using mental health services in Scotland, by supporting frontline staff to test, gather real-time data and reliably implement interventions, before spreading across their catchment area.
Multidisciplinary staff worked together in improving recording of daily electronic and paper based risk assessments from a baseline of 20% to nearly 100% over a sixth month period. We expect better quality risk management by readily accessible risk assessments and safe practise through enhanced safety perception by the patients as well as staff. Patient and staff safety perception tools were designed to measure impact of improvement in risk management. We have seen drop in the number of critical incidents and challenging situations requiring restraint following coordinated approach to risk assessment and easy access to key information. We have been successful as the frontline staff became part of the process of change and this has enabled sustained improvement.
High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation characterised by treatment resistance, medication non-concordance and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed as both an oral and depot antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. Whilst there is data for the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP), there are no studies involving patients in forensic settings or those with comorbid personality disorder.
To determine the effects of PP on violence, aggression and personality pathology.
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of PP.
This was a retrospective service evaluation involving 11 patients. Medical records and interviews with the treating psychiatrist were used to formulate clinical global impression (CGI) and to identify incidents of violence. The effect on personality symptom domains; cognitive-perceptual, impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol and affective dysregulation was ascertained, as well as engagement with occupational and psychological therapies.
Six patients were being prescribed PP. All 6 showed improvement in the CGI score with benefits in the symptom domains. Two patients demonstrated a reduction in violence risk and 2 remained incident-free. There was improvement in engagement with therapies. Benefits were also seen in aspects of personality for those who had discontinued PP.
This pragmatic study of a small but complex patient group demonstrated that PP was effective in reducing symptoms of schizophrenia. Additionally and for the first time, it was shown that PP was also effective in reducing violence as well as improving personality pathology dimensions in a comorbid patient. This could have significant implications for management of high-security patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Rafinesque) Sargent (Pinaceae), trees growing in a clonal, commercial seed orchard on Whidbey Island, Washington, United States of America were assessed for Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) infestation levels to determine whether there was any evidence of resistance to this herbivore. Join-count statistics revealed that A. tsugae infested trees were not clumped, but instead were randomly distributed throughout the seed orchard. Chi-square analyses suggested that there is a genetic basis for different levels of A. tsugae infestation among the genets represented in the orchard. However, since none of the genets were completely free of A. tsugae infestation, differences among genets seem to be related more to susceptibility or tolerance than complete resistance. Among the 17 genets that had five or more ramets in the seed orchard, only one had more than one ramet free of A. tsugae. That genet had four of five ramets that were free of A. tsugae. However, it is not possible to say whether that was due to chance or inherent tree characteristics that make it less susceptible to A. tsugae infestation.
The hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae: Adelges tsugae Annand) is an invasive insect, introduced from Japan to eastern North America, where it causes decline and death of hemlock trees. There is a closely related lineage of A. tsugae native to western North America. To inform classical biological control of A. tsugae in the eastern USA, the density and phenology of three native western adelgid specialist predators, Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt), Le. piniperda (Malloch) (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae), and Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), were quantified in the Pacific Northwest. Infested branches were collected from western hemlock (Pinaceae: Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) at four sites around the Puget Sound, Washington and three sites in Oregon. Immature Leucopis were identified to species using DNA barcodes. Leucopis argenticollis was roughly twice as abundant as Le. piniperda. Laricobius nigrinus larvae were more abundant than the two species of Leucopis during the egg stage of the first adelgid generation, but Leucopis were present as feeding larvae during the second adelgid generation when La. nigrinus was aestivating in the soil, resulting in Leucopis being more abundant than La. nigrinus across the entire sampling period. Adelges tsugae and La. nigrinus densities were not correlated, while A. tsugae and Leucopis spp. densities were positively correlated. Leucopis spp. and La. nigrinus densities were negatively correlated. These results support the complementary use of La. nigrinus and the two Leucopis species for biological control of A. tsugae in the eastern USA, and point to the need for further investigation of spatial and temporal niche partitioning among the three predator species.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Introduction: Les patients ayant un retour de circulation spontanée (RCS) durant la phase préhospitalière de leur réanimation suite à un arrêt cardiaque extrahospitalier (ACEH) ont un meilleur taux de survie que ceux n'en ayant pas. La durée des efforts de réanimation avant l'initiation d'un transport ne varie généralement pas en fonction du rythme initial observé. Cette étude vise à comparer la durée des manœuvres de réanimation nécessaire afin de générer la majorité des RCS préhospitaliers et des RCS préhospitaliers menant à une survie en fonction du rythme initial. Methods: La présente étude de cohorte a été réalisée à partir des bases de données collectées de la Corporation d'Urgences-santé dans la région de Montréal entre 2010 et 2015. Les patients avec un ACEH d'origine médicale ont été inclus. Les patients dont l'ACEH était témoigné par les paramédics ont été exclus, tout comme ceux dont le rythme initial était inconnu. Nous avons comparé entre les groupes (rythme défibrillable [RD], activité électrique sans pouls [AESP] et asystolie) les taux de RCS préhospitalier et le temps nécessaires pour obtenir une majorité des RCS préhospitaliers et des RCS préhospitaliers menant à une survie. Results: Un total de 6002 patients (3851 hommes et 2151 femmes) d'un âge moyen de 52 ans ( ±10) ont été inclus dans l’étude, parmi lesquels 563 (9%) ont survécu jusqu’à leur congé hospitalier et 1310 (22%) ont obtenu un RCS préhospitalier. Un total de 1545 (26%) patients avaient un RD, 1654 (28%) une AESP et 2803 (47%) une asystolie. Les patients avec un RD ont obtenu plus fréquemment un RCS préhospitalier et un RCS préhospitalier menant à une survie que les patients avec une AESP qui eux même avaient un meilleur pronostic que ceux avec une asystolie initial (777 patients [55%] vs 385 [23%] vs 148 [5%], p < 0,001; 431 [28%] vs 85 [5%] vs 7 [0,2%], p < 0,001, respectivement). Les RCS survenaient également plus rapidement lorsque le rythme initial était un RD (13 minutes [ ±12] vs 18 [ ±13] vs 25 [ ±12], p < 0,001). Cependant, une période de réanimation plus longue était nécessaire afin d'obtenir 95% des RCS préhospitaliers menant à une survie pour les patients avec un RD (26 minutes vs 21 minutes vs 21 minutes). Conclusion: Les patients avec un rythme initial défibrillable suite à leur ACEH sont à meilleur pronostic. Il serait envisageable de transporter plus rapidement vers l'hôpital les patients avec une AESP ou une asystolie que ceux avec un rythme défibrillable si l'arrêt des manœuvres n'est pas envisagé.
Introduction: Les patients dont l'arrêt cardiaque extrahospitalier (ACEH) n'a pas été témoigné sont généralement exclus des protocoles de réanimation par circulation extracorporelle puisque le délai avant l'initiation de leur réanimation est inconnu. Il a été proposé que la présence d'un rythme initial défibrillable (RD) est fortement suggestif une très courte période avant l'initiation des manœuvres de réanimation. La présente étude vise à décrire l'association entre la durée avant l'initiation de la réanimation et la présence d'un RD chez des patients souffrant d'un ACEH. Methods: Cette étude de cohorte a été réalisée à partir des bases de données collectées de la Corporation d'Urgences-santé dans la région de Montréal entre 2010 et 2015. Les patients dont l'arrêt était témoigné, mais dont les témoins n'ont pas entamé de manœuvres de réanimation, ont été inclus. Nous avons également inclus les patients dont l'arrêt était témoigné par les paramédics comme groupe contrôle (durée avant l'initiation de la réanimation = 0 minute). Les patients avec un retour de circulation spontanée avant l'arrivée des services préhospitaliers ont été exclus, tout comme ceux dont le rythme initial était inconnu. Nous avons décrit l’évolution de la proportion de chacun des rythmes et construit une régression logistique multivariée ajustant pour les variables sociodémographiques et cliniques pertinentes. Results: Un total de 1751 patients (1173 hommes et 578 femmes) d'un âge moyen de 69 ans (±16) ont été inclus dans l'analyse principale, parmi lesquels 603 (34%) avaient un RD. Un total de 663 autres patients ont vu leur ACEH témoigné directement par les paramédics. Un plus court délai avant l'initiation des manœuvres est associé à la présence d'un RD (rapport de cotes ajusté = 0,97 [intervalle de confiance à 95% 0,94-0,99], p = 0,016). Cependant, cette relation n'est pas linéaire et la proportion de RD ne diminue pas avant notablement jusqu’à ce que 15 minutes s’écoulent avant le début de la réanimation (0 min = 35%, 1-5 min = 37%, 5-10 min = 35%, 10-15 min = 34%, +de 15 min = 16%). Conclusion: Bien que la proportion de patients avec un RD diminue lorsque le délai augmente avant l'initiation des manœuvres, cette relation ne semble pas linéaire. La baisse principale de la proportion de patients avec RD semble se produire suite à la quinzième minute de délai avant le début de la réanimation.
Introduction: La réanimation par circulation extracorporelle (R-CEC) permet potentiellement d'améliorer la survie de patients souffrant d'un arrêt cardiaque extrahospitalier (ACEH) réfractaire aux traitements habituels. Cette technique, se pratiquant généralement en centre hospitalier (CH), doit être réalisée le plus précocement possible. Un transport vers le CH en temps opportun est donc nécessaire. Cette étude vise à décrire la durée nécessaire des manœuvres de réanimation préhospitalières afin d'optimiser le moment du départ vers le CH dans le but d'obtenir un maximum de retour de circulation spontanée (RCS) préhospitalier. Methods: La présente étude de cohorte a été réalisée à partir des bases de données collectées de la Corporation d'Urgences-santé dans la région de Montréal entre 2010 et 2015. Les patients éligibles à une R-CEC selon les critères locaux ont été inclus (<65 ans, rythme initial défibrillable, arrêt témoigné avec réanimation par un témoin). Les patients ayant eu un arrêt devant les paramédics ont été exclus, tout comme ceux avec un RCS avant l'arrivée des services préhospitaliers. Nous avons calculé la sensibilité et la spécificité à différents seuils afin de prédire un RCS préhospitalier et une survie au congé hospitalier. Une courbe ROC a également été construite. Results: Un total de 236 patients (207 hommes et 29 femmes) d'un âge moyen de 52 ans (±10) ont été inclus dans l’étude, parmi lesquels 93 (39%) ont survécu jusqu’à leur congé hospitalier et 136 (58%) ont obtenu un RCS préhospitalier. Le délai moyen avant leur RCS était de 13 minutes (±10). Plus de 50% des survivants avaient eu un RCS moins de 8 minutes après l'initiation des manœuvres de réanimation par les intervenants préhospitaliers, et plus de 90% avant 24 minutes. Plus de 50% de tous les RCS survenaient dans les 10 premières minutes de réanimation et plus de 90% dans les 31 premières minutes. La courbe ROC montrait visuellement que le délai avant le RCS maximisant la sensibilité et la spécificité pour prédire la survie chez ces patients était à 22 minutes (Sensibilité = 90%, spécificité = 78%; aire sous la courbe = 0,89 [intervalle de confiance à 95% 0,84-0,93]). Conclusion: Le départ vers le CH pourrait être considéré pour ces patients entre 8 et 24 minutes après l'initiation des manœuvres. Une période de réanimation de 22 minutes semble être le meilleur compromis à cet égard.
Surface water can affect the properties of metal oxide nanoparticles. Investigations on several systems revealed that nanoparticles have different thermodynamic properties than their bulk counterparts due to adsorbed water on their surfaces. Some thermodynamically metastable phases of bulk metal oxides become stable when reduced to the nanoscale, partially due to interactions between high energy surfaces and surface water. Water adsorption microcalorimetry and high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry, low-temperature specific heat calorimetry, and inelastic neutron scattering are used to understand the interactions of surface water with metal oxide nanoparticles. Computational methods, such as molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations, have been used to study these interactions. Investigations on titania, cassiterite, and alumina illustrate the insights gained by these measurements. The energetics of water on metal oxide surfaces are different from those of either liquid water or hexagonal ice, and there is substantial variation in water interactions on different metal oxide surfaces.
Expert-consensus guidelines have been developed for how members of the public should assist a person with a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis.
This review aimed to examine the range of guidelines that have been developed and how these have been implemented in practice.
A narrative review was carried out based on a systematic search for literature on the development or implementation of the guidelines.
The Delphi method has been used to develop a wide range of guidelines for English-speaking countries, Asian countries and a number of other cultural groups. The primary implementation has been through informing the content of training courses.
Further work is needed on guidelines for low- and middle-income countries.
Declaration of interest
A.F.J. is an unpaid member of the Board of Mental Health First Aid International (trading as Mental Health First Aid Australia), which is a not-for-profit organisation.
To examine neonatal risk factors associated with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus colonization and to determine the genetic relatedness of S. aureus strains cultured from neonates before and after decolonization.
Single-center retrospective cohort study of neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 2013 to December 2015, during which weekly nasal cultures from hospitalized NICU patients were routinely obtained for S. aureus surveillance.
Johns Hopkins Hospital’s 45-bed level IV NICU in Baltimore, Maryland.
Demographics and clinical data were collected on all neonates admitted to the NICU with S. aureus nasal colonization who underwent mupirocin-based decolonization during the study period. A decolonized neonate was defined as a neonate with ≥1 negative culture after intranasal mupirocin treatment. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for strain typing.
Of 2,060 infants screened for S. aureus, 271 (13%) were colonized, and 203 of these 271 (75%) received intranasal mupirocin. Of those treated, 162 (80%) had follow-up surveillance cultures, and 63 of these 162 infants (39%) developed recurrent colonization after treatment. The S. aureus strains were often genetically similar before and after decolonization. The presence of an endotracheal tube or nasal cannula/mask was associated with an increased risk of recurrent S. aureus colonization (hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–5.90; and HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.02–4.75, respectively).
Strains identified before and after decolonization were often genetically similar, and the presence of invasive respiratory devices increased the risk of recurrent S. aureus nasal colonization in neonates. To improve decolonization efficacy, alternative strategies may be needed.
Background: Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the synaptic scaffolding gene SHANK2 are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, their impact on the function of human neurons is unknown. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from affected individuals permits generation of live neurons to answer this question. Methods: We generated iPSCs by reprogramming dermal fibroblasts of neurotypic and ASD-affected donors. To isolate the effect of SHANK2, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to knock out SHANK2 in control iPSCs and correct a heterozygous nonsense mutation in ASD-affected donor iPSCs. We then derived cortical neurons from SOX1+ neural precursor cells differentiated from these iPSCs. Using a novel assay that overcomes line-to-line variability, we compared neuronal morphology, total synapse number, and electrophysiological properties between SHANK2 mutants and controls. Results: Relative to controls, SHANK2 mutant neurons have increased dendrite complexity, dendrite length, total synapse number (1.5-2-fold), and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) frequency (3-7.6-fold). Conclusions: ASD-associated heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SHANK2 increase synaptic connectivity among human neurons by increasing synapse number and sEPSC frequency. This is partially supported by increased dendrite length and complexity, providing evidence that SHANK2 functions as a suppressor of dendrite branching during neurodevelopment.
We aimed to assess the maternal and family determinants of four anthropometric typologies at the household level in Colombia for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010.
We classified children <5 years old according to height-for-age Z-score (<−2) and BMI-for-age Z-score (>2) to assess stunting and overweight/obesity, respectively; mothers were categorized according to BMI to assess underweight (<18·5 kg/m2) and overweight/obesity (≥25·0 kg/m2). At the household level, we established four final anthropometric typologies: normal, underweight, overweight and dual-burden households. Separate polytomous logistic regression models for each of the surveyed years were developed to examine several maternal and familial determinants of the different anthropometric typologies.
National and sub-regional (urban and rural) representative samples from Colombia, South America.
Drawing on data from three waves of Colombia’s Demographic and Health Survey/Encuesta Nacional de Salud (DHS/ENDS), we examined individual and household information from mothers (18–49 years) and their children (birth–5 years).
Higher parity was associated with an increased likelihood of overweight and dual burden. Higher levels of maternal education were correlated with lower prevalence of overweight, underweight and dual burden of malnutrition in all data collection waves. In 2010, participation in nutrition programmes for children <5 years, being an indigenous household, food purchase decisions by the mother and food security classification were also associated with the four anthropometric typologies.
Results suggest that maternal and family correlates of certain anthropometric typologies at the household level may be used to better frame policies aimed at improving social conditions and nutrition outcomes.
The market structure and recipes for beer has been rapidly changing with craft beers attracting more consumers. Perceived hops quality (hoppiness) is one of the main attributes that microbrewers alter to differentiate their products to satisfy consumers’ changing tastes and preferences. We hypothesize that, in addition to manipulating beer-processing conditions, the conditions under which the hops are grown may also influence the final sensory properties of the beer. Using hops from a field experiment coupled with sensory attributes and sociodemographic characteristics from a contingent valuation survey, we analyzed the impact of under-fertilized hop treatments during the growing season on consumers’ willingness to pay for beer. The results indicate that uninformed consumers in a blind tasting could identify the differences in beer made from hops across the fertilization treatments and, thus, implying that all else equal sufficient fertilizer is required to achieve satisfactory hoppiness for which consumers are willing to pay. (JEL Classifications: C91, D12, L66, Q11)
Introduction: Introduction: Paramedics frequently make immediate life-altering decisions with minimal clinical information. This applies to their decision to treat an unconscious patient with naloxone when the history of an opioid overdose cannot be readily established. Among patients treated by paramedics with naloxone, our objective was to compare patient demographics, treatment interventions and clinical response between patients with and without a confirmed history of an opioid overdose. Methods: Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study design of consecutive patients treated with naloxone by paramedics between January 1, 2016, and June 30, 2017. Patients were classified based on whether paramedics did or did not document a history of an opioid overdose. Baseline characteristics, treatment interventions, and response to naloxone were compared between groups. Comparisons were done using a chi-squared or Fishers exact test. Results: Results: We identified 294 patients of whom 113 (38%) did not have a confirmed history of an opioid overdose. The groups were similar in gender, bystander CPR, and bystander administration of naloxone. There were no differences in the presence of pinpoint pupils, initial oxygen saturation, initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), respiratory rate, or time on scene. Both patient groups were managed similarly with respect to route of naloxone administration and the use of a bag valve mask. All patients who were intubated were in the no confirmed history group (n=5; p=.003). Post naloxone there were no differences in last recorded vital signs except the no confirmed history group was less likely to achieve a GCS 10 (57% versus 89%; p<.001). The overall post-naloxone development of agitation (9%) was moderate while the need for physical/chemical restraint (2%) was low with no differences between groups. All patients were transported to the hospital. Conclusion: Conclusion: A substantial proportion of patients who received naloxone did not have a confirmed history of an opioid overdose. These patients closely resembled those with a confirmed history with respect to demographics and physical characteristics. The primary difference was a lower proportion of patients with no confirmed history who achieved a post naloxone GCS 10. Despite a moderate development of post naloxone agitation, paramedics were able to manage most of these patients without the use of physical/chemical restraints.
This piece explores legal, ethical, and policy arguments associated with using interventions that leverage feelings of shame and social exclusion to promote uptake of childhood immunizations by parents.