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Individuals on anticoagulation therapy are at increased risk of bleeding, including epistaxis. There is a lack of available reversal agents for novel oral anticoagulation therapy.
This paper reviews the current literature on epistaxis in the context of novel oral anticoagulation use, in order to recommend guidelines on management.
A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to identify all relevant articles published up to April 2019.
Patients on oral anticoagulation therapy are over-represented in individuals with epistaxis. Those on novel oral anticoagulation therapy were more likely to relapse compared to patients on classic oral anticoagulants or non-anticoagulated patients. Idarucizumab is an effective antidote for bleeding associated with dabigatran use. Recommendations for epistaxis management in patients on novel oral anticoagulation therapy are outlined.
Clinicians need to be aware of the potential severity of epistaxis and the increased likelihood of recurrence. High-quality studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of andexanet alfa and ciraparantag, as well as non-specific reversal agents.
Thyroglossal duct cyst recurrence following resection is attributed to anatomical variability and residual thyroglossal ducts. In adults, thyroglossal duct cyst recurrence is extremely rare and a surgical solution is yet to be well explored. This paper describes our approach to the management of recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts and sinuses in adults using a wide anterior neck dissection.
A retrospective review was performed to identify adults who underwent a wide anterior neck dissection for recurrent thyroglossal duct cyst management between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2015.
Six males and one female were included in the series (mean age, 26.4 ± 10.9 years). Recurrence occurred at a mean of 18 ± 9.8 months following primary surgical management (3 patients underwent cystectomy and 4 had a Sistrunk procedure). All patients subsequently underwent wide anterior neck dissection; there was no further recurrence over the 12-month average follow-up period.
This paper describes a wide anterior neck dissection technique for the management of recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts or sinuses in adults; this approach addresses the variable anatomy of the thyroglossal duct and is associated with minimal morbidity.
To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure.
This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth.
This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed.
This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.
The major lymphatic vessels may be damaged during neck dissection or other cervical surgery, resulting in chyloma or chyle fistula. While commonly considered to be predominantly a complication of left-sided surgery, the thoracic duct may be damaged on either side of the neck due to the extreme variability in the anatomy of the central lymphatic system.
Method and results:
This paper reviews the variable anatomy and embryology of the thoracic and right lymphatic ducts, particularly aspects relevant to head and neck surgery.
The Hayes-Martin manoeuvre involves ligation of the posterior facial vein and superior reflection of the investing fascia below the mandible to preserve the marginal mandibular nerve. The peri-facial nodes thus remain undissected. We perform this manoeuvre routinely during modified radical neck dissection for metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Here, we review the oncological safety and marginal mandibular nerve preservation rates of this manoeuvre from 2004 to 2009.
Retrospective review of the head and neck oncology database (2004–2009) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, a tertiary referral centre for head and neck oncology.
Thirty-four patients underwent modified radical neck dissection for metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The primary tumour included the tonsil in 19 cases, base of tongue in 10 and posterior pharyngeal wall in 5. The neck nodal status was N1 in 4 cases, N2a in 11, N2b in 10, N2c in 4 and N3 in 5. All patients had adjuvant radiotherapy. Median follow up was four years (range, two to five). No peri-facial nodal region recurrences were seen. Four patients had temporary marginal mandibular nerve weakness; beyond two months, no weakness was seen.
In neck dissections for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the marginal mandibular nerve and accompanying facial nodes can be safely preserved without oncological risk using the Hayes-Martin manoeuvre.
Treatment of glottic stenosis is a considerable challenge to the otolaryngologist. Glottic airway patency can be compromised by bilateral vocal fold palsy, anterior webbing or a posterior segment scar, which may be significant enough to impair arytenoid movement.
A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients (n = 34) treated by a specialist airway surgeon. All patients underwent endoscopic treatment with a CO2 laser in an attempt to improve airway calibre and, in 12 patients, to decannulate tracheostomy tubes.
Twenty-one patients had bilateral vocal fold palsy and 13 had predominantly posterior glottic stenosis. A variety of pathology-directed treatment approaches were used to achieve good functional results. Four patients required a second endoscopic procedure. The overall revision rate was 5 per cent for bilateral fold palsy and 23 per cent for posterior glottic stenosis (p < 0.05). All patients had an adequate functional airway calibre, and all 12 tracheotomised patients were decannulated.
Pathology-directed endoscopic laser surgery is safe and effective treatment for glottic stenosis. Rather prescriptive use of unilateral or bilateral cordotomy or combined cordo-arytenoidectomy, clinicians must perform the procedure that will treat the lesion most adequately. Our success rate compared favourably with the best reported results.
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