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Pulsar parameters of PSR B1937+21 acquired from observations at the Kashima 34-m antenna over five years are consistent with published reports. The frequency stability is 2 × 10−14 over the data span of 6.5 years using Kashima data combined with Parkes data.
We discuss an overall picture of star formation in the Galaxy. Recent high-resolution magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of two-fluid dynamics with cooling/heating and thermal conduction have shown that the formation of molecular clouds requires multiple episodes of supersonic compression. This finding enables us to create a new scenario of molecular cloud formation through interacting shells or bubbles on galactic scales. We estimate the ensemble-averaged growth rate of individual molecular clouds, and predict the associated cloud mass function. This picture naturally explains the accelerated star formation over many million years that was previously reported by stellar age determination in nearby star forming regions. The recent claim of cloud-cloud collisions as a mechanism for forming massive stars and star clusters can be naturally accommodated in this scenario. This explains why massive stars formed in cloud-cloud collisions follows the power-law slope of the mass function of molecular cloud cores repeatedly found in low-mass star forming regions.
A fluorescent and diffraction X-ray spectrometer with a 0.8 μmϕ Xray beam has been developed. It allows simultaneous measurement of local strains and minute amounts of metal contaminants in fine ULSI devices. The minimum sample size for X-ray diffraction measurement with it is a 0.3 μm diameter by 0.2 μm deep volume. It is applied to analyze strain in Al lines, showing that strain in Al single-layer lines (no barrier) increases significantly as the line width is reduced below 1.5 μm. Introducing barrier metals reduces this dependence of strain on line width. It is also found that hillock and void formation has a very strong correlation to strain.