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Transmastoid occlusion of the posterior or superior semicircular canal is an effective and safe management option in patients with refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence. A method of quantifying successful canal occlusion surgery is described.
This paper presents representative patients with intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence, who underwent transmastoid occlusion of the posterior or superior semicircular canal respectively. Vestibular function was assessed pre- and post-operatively. The video head impulse test was included as a measure of semicircular canal and vestibulo-ocular reflex functions.
Post-operative video head impulse testing showed reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex gain in occluded canals. Gain remained normal in the non-operated canals. Post-operative audiometry demonstrated no change in hearing in the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patient and slight hearing improvement in the superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome patient.
Transmastoid occlusion of the posterior or superior semicircular canal is effective and safe for treating troublesome benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Post-operative video head impulse testing demonstrating a reduction in vestibulo-ocular reflex gain can reliably confirm successful occlusion of the canal and is a useful adjunct in post-operative evaluation.
Carotid artery aneurysm is a potentially fatal complication of skull base osteomyelitis. It is important to know the warning signs for this complication, as early diagnosis is of great importance. This report aimed to determine whether the pattern of cranial nerve involvement may predict the occurrence of aneurysm involving the internal carotid artery in skull base osteomyelitis.
Two diabetic patients with skull base osteomyelitis were incidentally diagnosed with pseudo-aneurysm of the petrous internal carotid artery on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. They presented with lower cranial nerve palsy; however, facial nerve function was almost preserved in both cases. Computed tomography angiography confirmed aneurysms at the junction of the horizontal and vertical segments of the petrous carotid artery.
Internal carotid artery trapping was conducted using coil embolisation. Post-coiling magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no procedure-related complications. Regular follow up has demonstrated that patients’ symptoms are improving.
One should be mindful of this potentially fatal complication in skull base osteomyelitis patients with lower cranial nerve palsies, with or without facial nerve involvement, especially in the presence of intracranial thromboembolic events or Horner's syndrome.
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