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This study aimed to compare the hearing results of incus interposition and bone cement ossiculoplasty in patients with incus long process defects.
Materials and methods:
Ninety-nine patients with incus long process defects were included. Incus interposition was performed in 49 patients (group 1) and bone cement ossiculoplasty was performed in 50 patients (group 2). Group 1 included 29 female and 20 male patients, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 29.43 ± 12.5 years (range, 8–58 years). Group 2 comprised 32 female and 18 male patients, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 29.1 ± 14.89 years (range, 8–67 years).
The mean hearing gain ± standard deviation was 15.2 ± 9.01 dB in group 1 and 19.36 ± 9.08 dB in group 2. Hearing gain was significantly greater in the bone cement group than in the incus interposition group (p = 0.0186). Successful hearing results (i.e. air–bone gap < 20 dB) were achieved by 63.2 per cent of group 1 patients and 78 per cent of group 2 patients.
Incus interposition and bone cement ossiculoplasty are safe and reliable methods with which to manage incus long process defects. Bone cement ossiculoplasty gives a greater hearing gain in appropriate cases.
To assess vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.
Twenty-four patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (two men and 22 women) and 21 female controls were included in the study. All patients underwent vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing.
Statistical comparison of fibromyalgia patients with control subjects showed a significant difference with respect to n23 latencies and interpeak latencies (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in p13 latencies, nor in p13 amplitudes, n23 amplitudes or interpeak amplitudes (p > 0.05).
Although patients with fibromyalgia syndrome generally have subjective neurotological symptoms, clinical and laboratory assessments usually fail to detect any objective abnormality. However, it is possible to detect abnormalities on vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in such patients, indicating dysfunction in the vestibulospinal pathway, possibly in the saccule. Elongation of the n23 latency and of the interpeak latency of waves p13–n23, during vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, may be a useful, objective indicator demonstrating neurotological involvement in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Future research investigating the mechanisms of this latency elongation may help increase understanding of the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia syndrome.
To assess contralateral suppression of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and normal hearing.
Twenty-four female patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and 24 healthy female controls with normal hearing were assessed using pure tone audiometry and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions.
All patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and all controls had normal hearing on pure tone audiometry. In the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome, the mean transiently evoked otoacoustic emission amplitude was 15.5 ± 4.8 dB. The mean transiently evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes after contralateral suppression was 15.5 ± 4.9 dB. There was no statistically significant difference between the transiently evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes measured before and after contralateral suppression (p > 0.05). In the controls, the mean transiently evoked otoacoustic emission amplitude was 12 ± 5 dB. The mean transiently evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes after contralateral suppression was 11 ± 4.7 dB. There was a statistically significant decrease in transiently evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes after contralateral suppression (p < 0.01).
The mechanisms related to contralateral suppression of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions seem dysfunctional in fibromyalgia syndrome. This dysfunction may be at the brain stem level, where the medial superior olivary complex is located, or at the synapses of medial superior olivary complex fibres with the outer hair cells in the cochlea. Demonstration of lack of contralateral suppression of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions can be used as a diagnostic tool in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.
To define the impact of patient-related and audiovestibular parameters on the prognosis of sudden hearing loss.
Eighty-three patients were included in this retrospective study. All were treated medically. We recorded the patients' demographic parameters, systemic diseases, time elapsed between onset of sudden hearing loss and initiation of treatment, tinnitus, vestibular symptoms, type of initial audiogram, pure tone averages and speech discrimination scores. For all patients, audiological measurements were performed on initial admission and at the completion of treatment on the 10th day.
There was no correlation between the hearing gain and recovery rate scores and patients' gender or age (p>0.05). However, a correlation was found between gender and relative hearing gain. Vertigo was not correlated with hearing gain and recovery rate scores (p<0.05). However, relative hearing gain correlated negatively with the presence of vertigo (−r=0.05, 81 degrees of freedom, p=0.043). Patients with <40 dB hearing loss on admission showed a better relative hearing gain (r=0.55, 81 degrees of freedom, p=0.03). Relative hearing gain correlated positively with better pre-treatment speech discrimination scores (r=0.82, 81 degrees of freedom, p=0.009) and negatively with poorer pre-treatment pure tone averages (−r=0.082, 81 degrees of freedom, p=0.009). There was no correlation between the scores for hearing gain, relative hearing gain and recovery rate and: systemic diseases (p>0.05); time elapsed between onset of sudden hearing loss and initiation of treatment (p>0.05); type of audiogram on initial admission (p>0.05), except for midfrequency type of audiogram; and tinnitus (p>0.05).
The outcome of sudden hearing loss was unaffected by systemic disease, tinnitus or type of audiogram (except for midfrequency type). The following were poor prognostic factors in the outcome of sudden hearing loss: female gender, presence of vertigo, initiation of treatment more than seven days after onset of hearing loss, and >40 dB hearing loss on admission.
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