We demonstrate a resonant Bragg structure formed by quasi-two-dimensional excitons in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) separated by GaN barriers. When the Bragg resonance and exciton–polariton resonance are tuned to each other, the medium exhibits an exciton-mediated resonantly enhanced optical Bragg reflection. The enhancement factor appeared to be largest for the system of 60 QWs. Owing to a high binding energy and oscillator strength of the excitons in InGaN QWs, the resonant enhancement was achieved at room temperature. The samples were grown by the metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaN-on-sapphire templates. The most important technological problem of the developed structures is inhomogeneous broadening of the excitonic states due to nonuniform chemical composition of the QWs driven by InN–GaN phase separation trend. We addressed this problem by variation of the vapor pressure, growth rate, growth interactions, and admixing of hydrogen during the MOVPE. The lowest width of 74 meV at room temperature and 41 meV at 77 K was achieved for the excitonic emission line from a single InGaN QW.