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Figural rating scales are tools used to measure male body dissatisfaction. The present review aimed to examine the design and psychometric properties of male figural rating scales and make recommendations based on findings. Relevant databases were systematically searched for studies that had developed and validated male figural rating scales. Twenty studies were included in this review. Figural rating scales differed in terms of the number of images represented and type of stimuli used (hand-drawn silhouettes, hand-drawn figures, computer-rendered figures, and photograph figures). Reliability and validity evidence varied greatly in strength across all scales. Four of the 20 scales included a correlational analysis between figural rating scale scores and eating disorder symptoms. Results showed the moderate to high positive correlations between eating disorder symptoms and figural rating scale perceived and index scores, suggesting that figural rating scales are sensitive to detecting eating disorder symptoms. Ideally, male figural rating scales should show strong validity and reliability, include variations in both body fat and muscularity, utilise realistic body stimuli, and be interval scales. No existing male figural rating scale meets these criteria. However, this review identifies five figural rating scales that meet the majority of the recommended criteria.
Explicit measures of disgust and threat overestimation have consistently been found to be involved in contamination aversion. However, evidence of the involvement of these factors at the implicit level is mixed, and the role of both responses has not been looked at concurrently. This study aimed to compare the ability of implicit and explicit measures of disgust and threat overestimation to predict contamination aversion and whether this depends on the type of contaminant. Sixty-five participants completed explicit and implicit measures of disgust and threat overestimation, as well as several measures of contamination aversion, including obsessive-compulsive tendencies, and contamination fear and avoidance of contaminants directly associated with disease (direct contaminants) and harmful substances (harm contaminants). It was found that both explicit disgust and explicit threat overestimation predicted contamination-fear obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Explicit disgust predicted contamination fear and avoidance of direct contaminants, whereas explicit threat overestimation predicted contamination fear and avoidance of harm contaminants. The involvement of implicit processes was weak, with some suggestion of difficulty disengaging predicting avoidance of contaminants. Implications for understanding dysfunctional contamination aversion are discussed.
Suicide is a leading cause of death for young people. Children living in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are disproportionately high, may be at increased risk.
To identify predictors, including HIV status, of suicidal ideation and behaviour in Rwandan children aged 10–17.
Matched case–control study of 683 HIV-positive, HIV-affected (seronegative children with an HIV-positive caregiver), and unaffected children and their caregivers.
Over 20% of HIV-positive and affected children engaged in suicidal behaviour in the previous 6 months, compared with 13% of unaffected children. Children were at increased risk if they met criteria for depression, were at high-risk for conduct disorder, reported poor parenting or had caregivers with mental health problems.
Policies and programmes that address mental health concerns and support positive parenting may prevent suicidal ideation and behaviour in children at increased risk related to HIV.
Recent advances in marine acoustic survey and land-based topographic monitoring technologies have resulted in increasingly cost-effective data acquisition in coastal areas. The DEFRA-funded National Network of Regional Coastal Monitoring Programmes of England are, for example, utilising swath bathymetry and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology more routinely to survey the coastal zone around the coastline of England. The demand for data processing, visualisation and interpretation techniques to keep pace with such advances in data acquisition is clear. This study discusses collection and processing techniques for such data on the south coast of Dorset, England, which have enabled the production of a seamless, high spatial resolution digital elevation model across the coastal zone. Case studies demonstrate how this elevation model can be viewed and analysed using state-of-the-art digital techniques to allow geological mapping to be extended from onshore to offshore in unprecedented detail, effectively eliminating what is known as the ‘White Ribbon’ for coastal geological mapping. The potential for rolling out such techniques for wider surveying programmes across many environmental disciplines is significant, which could contribute towards improving the multi-disciplinary scientific evidence base in the complex coastal zone.
Background: Prominent models of social phobia highlight the role played by attentional factors, such as self-focused attention, in the development and maintenance of social phobia. Elevated self-focused attention is associated with increases in self-rated anxiety. Treatments that aim to modify and change attentional processes, specifically self-focused attention, will have a direct effect on social phobia symptoms. Thus, Attention Training targets attentional focus. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Attention Training in comparison to an established treatment for social phobia, Cognitive Therapy. Method: Participants (Intention-to-treat = 45; completers = 30) were allocated to either 6 weeks of Attention Training or Cognitive Therapy. It was hypothesized that both treatments would be effective in reducing social phobia symptoms, but that Attention Training would work primarily by reducing levels of self-focused attention. Results: The results found an overall effectiveness of both treatment conditions in reducing social phobia symptoms. However, Attention Training significantly improved scores on the Self-Focused Attention questionnaire and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation questionnaire compared to Cognitive Therapy. Conclusion: Attention Training seems to be a promising treatment for social phobia.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples.
We present recent results using ions such as C., O, Si, Fe, Zn, and Au at
energies between 100 keV to 10 MeV to increase the roughness and porosity of
the partially and fully cured precursor phenolic resins. The fully cured
phenolic resin is called Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC). GPC is chemically
inert, biocompatible and useful for medical applications, such as heart
valves and other prosthetic devices. Ion implantation enhances biological
cell/tissue growth on, and tissue adhesion to, prosthetic devices made from
GPC. We have previously shown that increased porosity of GPC is also useful
for drug delivery devices. The porosity of the ion implanted partially and
fully cured precursor phenolic resins was measured by introducing lithium
from a molten LiCl salt into each sample. By using Li(p,2α) nuclear reaction
analysis (NRA) we measured the concentration of Li retention in the pre- and
post-implanted samples. The surface roughness was measured using optical
microscopy. The curing process was monitored using micro-Raman microscopy.
We have correlated the NRA measurements of increased pore availability with
the observations of increased surface roughness.
Natural degradation of YBa2Cu3O7−δ powders leads to trapping of CO2 by the powder. The presence of residual carbon in ceramics or textured materials can strongly affect the superconducting properties. Optimal conditions for carbon elimination during thermal treatment are defined. Amounts of carbon lower than 500 ppm are easily obtained when thermal treatment is performed in temperature, gas flowing rate, and heating ramp conditions allowing CO2 departure before pore closure. Liquid phase formation and the presence of BaCuO2 are limiting factors. An oxycarbonate formed by reaction between this latter compound and evolved CO2 is implied in the last step of the decarbonation process.
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