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Paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), an umbrella term that includes PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) is suggested to be a psychiatric disorder of autoimmune aetiology. PANS is characterised by an acute onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder or restricted eating with multiple comorbid symptoms. The specificity of the PANS criteria is not fully understood.
To describe a cohort of patients with PANS and to determine if PANS features relating to symptoms, onset and course are more common in PANS than in other psychiatric conditions.
A case–control study comparing patients with interview-confirmed PANS with patients with suspected PANS and patients with a psychiatric condition but with no suspicion of PANS. Validated and non-validated measures of symptoms, onset and episodic course were used.
Illness in patients with interview-confirmed PANS featured an episodic course and multiple symptoms present at onset compared with the psychiatric controls. However, individuals with interview-confirmed PANS did not present a specific symptom profile.
PANS may be a distinct clinical entity featuring an acute onset, an episodic course and multiple symptoms at onset.
Declaration of interest
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