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Background: The δ (delta) variant has spread rapidly worldwide and has become the predominant strain of SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed an outbreak caused by a vaccine breakthrough infection in a hospital with an active infection control program where 91.9% of healthcare workers were vaccinated. Methods: We investigated a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak between September 9 and October 2, 2021, in a referral teaching hospital in Korea. We retrospectively collected data on demographics, vaccination history, transmission, and clinical features of confirmed COVID-19 in patients, healthcare workers, and caregivers. Results: During the outbreak, 94 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) testing. Testing identified infections in 61 health care workers, 18 patients, and 15 caregivers, and 70 (74.5%) of 94 cases were vaccine breakthrough infections. We detected 3 superspreading events: in the hospital staff cafeteria and offices (n = 47 cases, 50%), the 8th floor of the main building (n = 22 cases, 23.4%), and the 7th floor in the maternal and child healthcare center (n = 12 cases, 12.8%). These superspreading events accounted for 81 (86.2%) of 94 transmissions (Fig. 1, 2). The median interval between completion of vaccination and COVID-19 infection was 117 days (range, 18–187). There was no significant difference in the mean Ct value of the RdRp/ORF1ab gene between fully vaccinated individuals (mean 20.87, SD±6.28) and unvaccinated individuals (mean 19.94, SD±5.37, P = .52) at the time of diagnosis. Among healthcare workers and caregivers, only 1 required oxygen supplementation. In contrast, among 18 patients, there were 4 fatal cases (22.2%), 3 of whom were unvaccinated (Table 1). Conclusions: Superspreading infection among fully vaccinated individuals occurred in an acute-care hospital while the δ (delta) variant was dominant. Given the potential for severe complications, as this outbreak demonstrated, preventive measures including adequate ventilation should be emphasized to minimize transmission in hospitals.
Background: We sought to determine the minimum number of observations needed to determine hand hygiene (HH) compliance among healthcare workers. Methods: The study was conducted at a referral hospital. We retrospectively analyzed the result of HH monitoring from January to December 2018. HH compliance was calculated by dividing the number of observed HH actions by the total number of opportunities. Appropriate HH compliance rates were calculated based on the 6-step technique, modified from the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. The minimum number of required observations (n) was calculated by the following equation using overall mean value (r), absolute precision (d), and confidence interval (1-α) [The equation: n3 Zα/22×ρ×1-ρ/d2]. We considered ds of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, with CIs of 99%, 95%, and 90%, respectively. Among the various cases, we focused on 10% for d and 95% for CI. Results: During the study period, 8,791 opportunities among 1,168 healthcare workers were monitored. The mean HH compliance and appropriate HH compliance rates were 80.3% and 59.7%, respectively (Table 1). The minimum number of observations required to determine HH compliance rates ranged from 2 (d, 30%; CI, 90%) to 624 (d, 5%; CI, 99%), and the minimum number of observations for optimal HH compliance ranged from 5 (d, 30%, CI, 90%) to 642 (d, 5%; CI, 99%) (Figure 1). At 10% absolute precision with 95% confidence, the minimum number of observations to determine HH and optimal HH compliance were 61 and 92, respectively. Conclusions: The minimum number of observations to determine HH compliance varies widely according to setting, but at least 5 were needed to determine optimal HH compliance.
Background: Addressing the high burden of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in nursing homes is a public health priority. High interfacility transmission may be attributed to inadequate infection prevention practices, shared living spaces, and frequent care needs. We assessed the contribution of roommates to the likelihood of MDRO carriage in nursing homes. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the SHIELD OC (Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, CA) Project, a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention to reduce MDROs among 38 regional facilities (18 nursing homes, 3 long-term acute-care hospitals, and 17 hospitals). Decolonization in participating nursing homes involved routine chlorhexidine bathing plus nasal iodophor (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week) from April 2017 through July 2019. MDRO point-prevalence assessments involving all residents at 16 nursing homes conducted at the end of the intervention period were used to determine whether having a roommate was associated with MDRO carriage. Nares, bilateral axilla/groin, and perirectal swabs were processed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Generalized linear mixed models assessed the impact of maximum room occupancy on MDRO prevalence when clustering by room and hallway, and adjusting for the following factors: nursing home facility, age, gender, length-of-stay at time of swabbing, bedbound status, known MDRO history, and presence of urinary or gastrointestinal devices. CRE models were not run due to low counts. Results: During the intervention phase, 1,451 residents were sampled across 16 nursing homes. Overall MDRO prevalence was 49%. In multivariable models, we detected a significant increasing association of maximum room occupants and MDRO carriage for MRSA but not other MDROs. For MRSA, the adjusted odds ratios for quadruple-, triple-, and double-occupancy rooms were 3.5, 3.6, and 2.8, respectively, compared to residents in single rooms (P = .013). For VRE, these adjusted odds ratios were 0.3, 0.3, and 0.4, respectively, compared to residents in single rooms (P = NS). For ESBL, the adjusted odds ratios were 0.9, 1.1, and 1.5, respectively, compared to residents in single rooms (P = nonsignificant). Conclusions: Nursing home residents in shared rooms were more likely to harbor MRSA, suggesting MRSA transmission between roommates. Although decolonization was previously shown to reduce MDRO prevalence by 22% in SHIELD nursing homes, this strategy did not appear to prevent all MRSA transmission between roommates. Additional efforts involving high adherence hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and judicious use of contact precautions are likely needed to reduce transmission between roommates in nursing homes.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to predict the potential impact of the introduction of implantation of polyurethane scaffold for the treatment of partial meniscal lesions in the South Korean healthcare system.
Methods: The horizon scanning process was used to select a target technology and assess its potential impacts on patients and the Korean healthcare system. We identified and filtered research-phase health technologies that are not listed yet in Korean, but appear promising. After a process of prioritization, we chose the implantation of polyurethane scaffolds as a target technology. Then, through the procedures of assessment and peer review, we analyzed current evidence and its predicted potential impacts.
Results: There were eight studies included in the review: one prospective cohort and seven case-series studies. Six revealed significant improvements in function and pain relief. Of the six studies, which reported safety endpoints, four stated no major postoperative complications related to scaffold, and two reported adverse events and serious adverse events such as pain, joint swelling, et cetera. We also included the potential impact of this technology based on the experts’ consultation. They all agreed that it would satisfy the diverse needs of patients and fulfill clinical needs. However, the majority of related clinical studies were based on short-term follow-up observations without any validation process involving comparison with control groups.
Conclusions: Through a horizon scanning activity, we found that the implantation of polyurethane scaffolds is a promising technology to resolve articular cartilage defects; however, long-term evidence with comparison groups for safety and effectiveness is required.
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