The 800 cm long sequence from the Bereket provides the first detailed fire history in the western Taurus Mountains for the last three millennia. The main disturbances occurred during the Beyşehir Occupation Phase (BO Phase), a period of intensive polyculture and dated at Bereket from ca. 2230 to 1550 cal yr BP. Four phases of local and extra-local fire periods have been recorded at 2320–2240, 1985–1970, 1865–1820 cal yr BP and post-AD 1950. The fire history established for the BO Phase is complex, with fire periods alternating with periods without local fires, as is the case for the late BO Phase from 1820 until 1550 cal yr BP. It is suggested that the past agricultural practices including fires cause a higher soil erodibility than agricultural practices without fires. A climatic shift towards aridity during Roman times may have triggered the observed change in fire regime but local processes, mainly human disturbances, appear to be the proximal cause of all recorded changes. In the Bereket surroundings, fires led to a simplification of the vegetation structure, favouring soil erosion, pastures and intensive cultivation.