Common polymorphisms of the CD36 fatty acid transporter gene have been associated with lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Association of a CD36 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism genotype with anthropometry and serum lipids was investigated in normal subjects, and in obese subjects during an 8-week low calorie diet and 6-month weight-maintenance period. 2728 normal female Twins UK subjects (mean body mass index 24.8 ± 4.4 kg/m2; age 47.3 ± 12.5 y) and 183 obese male and female Spanish subjects (mean body mass index 30.6 ± 3.0 kg/m2; age 35.0 ± 5.0 y) were genotyped for the CD36-22674 T/C (rs2151916) promoter single nucleotide polymorphism. In the Twins UK full cohort, the C-allele was associated with lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = .02, N = 2396). No associations were found in the obese Spanish subjects at baseline, but 6 months after the end of the low-calorie diet, the C-allele was associated with lower total- (p = .03) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = .01) and higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = .01). Intake of saturated fatty acids was lower in carriers of the C-allele at baseline, but not significantly so (p = .11). However, 6 months after the end of the low-calorie diet, elements of the lipid profile were correlated with saturated fatty acid intake: total cholesterol r = .21, p = .060; low density lipoprotein-cholesterol: r = .25, p = .043; high density lipoprotein-cholesterol: r= –.26, p = .007. CD36 promoter SNP allele –22674C is therefore associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in normal female twins and with improved lipid profile during weight loss and maintenance in obese subjects.