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Adolescence is a critical period for development of depression and understanding of behavioural risk factors is needed to support appropriate preventive strategies. We examined associations between adolescent diet quality and depressive symptoms, cross-sectionally and prospectively, in a large community cohort, adjusting for behavioural and psychosocial covariates.
Prospective community-based cohort study (ROOTS).
Secondary schools in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK.
Study participants (n 603) who completed 4 d diet diaries at age 14 years and reported depressive symptoms (Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ)) at 14 and 17 years of age.
Diet data were processed to derive a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and fish. At age 14 years, a negative association between fruit and vegetable intake and MFQ score was seen in the unadjusted cross-sectional regression model (β=−0·40; 95 % CI −0·71,−0·10), but adjustment for behavioural covariates, including smoking and alcohol consumption, attenuated this association. Fish intake and MDS were not cross-sectionally associated with MFQ score. No prospective associations were found between MDS, fruit and vegetable intake or fish intake and later MFQ score.
Diet quality was not associated with depressive symptoms in mid-adolescence. Previously reported associations in this age range may be due to confounding. Further longitudinal studies are needed that investigate associations between adolescent diet and depression across different time frames and populations, ensuring appropriate adjustment for covariates.
To examine the association between breakfast consumption and physical activity in a well-characterised sample of English children.
Cross-sectional study using food diaries to record breakfast consumption and accelerometry to assess physical activity.
Norfolk county, England.
Children (n 1697) aged 9–10 years from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study.
Boys who consumed a poor-quality breakfast based on dairy product, cereal and fruit intakes spent approximately 7 min more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during weekday afternoons and evenings compared with those who did not consume breakfast (P < 0·05). On weekend days, boys who consumed a poor- or good-quality breakfast spent approximately 6 and 5 min less time respectively being sedentary during the mornings compared with breakfast non-consumers (P < 0·05). Boys who consumed a good-quality breakfast spent almost 3 min more in MVPA during the morning on weekend days compared with non-consumers, and boys who consumed a poor- or good-quality breakfast were 22 % and 16 % more active overall respectively than breakfast non-consumers (P < 0·05). During the rest of the day, boys who consumed a good-quality breakfast spent about 11 min less time being sedentary (P < 0·05) and 7 min more time in MVPA (P < 0·01).
Although some associations between breakfast consumption and physical activity were detected for boys, the present study does not provide strong evidence that failing to consume breakfast, or having a low energy intake at breakfast time, is detrimental to children's physical activity levels.
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