Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene are promising components for the next generation high performance structural and multi-functional composite materials. One of the largest obstacles to create strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT/CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps of the carbon nanomaterial purification, ultrasound sonication and functionalization are required. We utilized a new approach to grow CNTs/CNFs directly on the surface of matrix, matrix precursor or filler particles. As the precursor matrix and fillers we utilized cement (clinker), copper powder, fly ash particles, soil and sand. Carbon nanomaterials were successfully grown on these materials without additional catalyst. Investigations of the physical properties of the composite materials based on these carbon modified particles revealed enhancement in the mechanical and electrical properties.