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Hyperprolactinaemia induced by D2 dopamine receptor antagonist antipsychotic medication can result in significant health problems.
To examine the role of DRD2 polymorphism on prolactin levels in patients treated with antipsychotic medication.
Antipsychotic drugs with different degrees of D2 receptor binding were given to 144 patients with schizophrenia. Serum prolactin levels were obtained and Taq1A DRD2 alleles were determined.
Prolactin levels increased across medication groups reflecting increasingly tight D2 receptor binding (clozapine, olanzapine, typical antipsychotics and risperidone). In the combined medication group, patients with the DRD2∗A1 allele had 40% higher prolactin levels than patients without this allele. In patients treated with clozapine (the loosest D2 receptor binding agent), patients with the DRD2∗A1 allele had prolactin levels twice those of patients without this allele.
Patients with the DRD2A1 allele receiving antipsychotic medications had higher prolactin levels and were overrepresented among those with hyperprolactinaemia, suggesting greater functional D2 receptor binding in this group.
The years immediately following the Revolution of 1911, when Yuan Shih-k'ai was president of the first Chinese republic emphasizes the beginnings of warlordism. It also stresses the continuities with the pre-revolutionary years and sees the Revolution of 1911 as an early climax in a nationalist movement to invigorate politics and society. The ambiguity of the revolutionary aftermath began with the negotiated settlement of the revolution itself. The social conservatism of the 1911 Revolution and the scope given to gentry power in the new order make understandable such politics among those most oppressed. It was apparently believed, at least by Yuan Shih-k'ai, that the switch to a monarchy would keep the Japanese, with their own monarchical proclivities, at bay until the war ended. It appears that the two failed political experiments of the early republic liberal government and dictatorship contributed to each other's destruction. Yuan's dictatorship collapsed with themonarchy.