To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Trans-oesophageal echocardiographic imaging is valuable in the pre- and post-operative evaluation of children and adults with CHD; however, the frequency by which trans-oesophageal echocardiography guides the intra-operative course of patients is unknown.
We retrospectively reviewed 1748 intra-operative trans-oesophageal echocardiograms performed between 1 October, 2005 and 31 December, 2010, and found 99 cases (5.7%) that required return to bypass, based in part upon the intra-operative echocardiographic findings.
The diagnoses most commonly requiring further repair and subsequent imaging were mitral valve disease (20.9%), tricuspid valve disease (16.0%), atrioventricular canal defects (12.0%), and pulmonary valve disease (14.1%). The vast majority of those requiring immediate return to bypass benefited by avoiding subsequent operations and longer lengths of hospital stay. A total of 14 patients (0.8%) who received routine imaging required further surgical repair within 1 week, usually due to disease that developed over ensuing days. Patients who had second post-operative trans-oesophageal echocardiograms in the operating room rarely required re-operations, confirming the benefit of routine intra-operative imaging.
This study represents a large single institutional review of intra-operative trans-oesophageal echocardiography, and confirms its applicability in the surgical repair of patients with CHD. Routine imaging accurately identifies patients requiring further intervention, does not confer additional risk of mortality or prolonged length of hospital stay, and prevents subsequent operations and associated sequelae in a substantial subset of patients. This study demonstrates the utility of echocardiography in intra-operative monitoring of surgical repair and highlights patients who are most likely to require return to bypass, as well as the co-morbidities of such manipulations.
To quantify myocardial blood flow in infants and children with mild or moderate aortic stenosis using adenosine-infusion cardiac magnetic resonance.
It is unclear whether asymptomatic children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis have myocardial abnormalities. In addition, cardiac magnetic resonance-determined normative myocardial blood flow data in children have not been reported.
We studied 31 infants and children with either haemodynamically normal hearts (n=20, controls) or mild/moderate aortic stenosis (n=11). The left ventricular myocardium was divided into six segments, and the change in average segmental signal intensity during contrast transit was used to quantify absolute flow (ml/g/minute) at rest and during adenosine infusion by deconvolution of the tissue curves with the arterial input of contrast.
In all the cases, adenosine was well tolerated without complications. The mean pressure gradient between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta was higher in the aortic stenosis group compared with controls (24 versus 3 mmHg, p<0.001). Left ventricular wall mass was slightly higher in the aortic stenosis group compared with controls (65 versus 50 g/m2, p<0.05). After adenosine treatment, both the absolute increase in myocardial blood flow (p<0.0001) and the hyperaemic flow significantly decreased (p<0.001) in children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis compared with controls.
Abnormal myocardial blood flow in children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis may be an important therapeutic target.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.