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Sex differences in cognitive functioning have long been recognized in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC). However, few studies have focused on patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in neurocognitive performance in ARMS patients compared with HC.
The data analyzed in this study were collected within the multicenter European Gene–Environment Interactions study (11 centers). A total of 343 ARMS patients (158 women) and 67 HC subjects (33 women) were included. All participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Linear mixed effects models were used to explore whether sex differences in cognitive functioning were present in the total group (main effect of sex) and whether sex differences were different for HC and ARMS (interaction between sex and group).
Women performed better in social cognition, speed of processing, and verbal learning than men regardless of whether they were ARMS or HC. However, only differences in speed of processing and verbal learning remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Additionally, ARMS patients displayed alterations in attention, current IQ, speed of processing, verbal learning, and working memory compared with HC.
Findings indicate that sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS are similar to those seen between healthy men and women. Thus, it appears that sex differences in cognitive performance may not be specific for ARMS, a finding resembling that in patients with schizophrenic psychoses.
Patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have many overlapping signs and symptoms and hence can be difficult to differentiate clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the differential diagnosis between ARMS and adult ADHD could be improved by neuropsychological testing.
168 ARMS patients, 123 adult ADHD patients and 109 healthy controls (HC) were recruited via specialized clinics of the University of Basel Psychiatric Hospital. Sustained attention and impulsivity were tested with the Continuous Performance Test, verbal learning and memory with the California Verbal Learning Test, and problem solving abilities with the Tower of Hanoi Task. Group differences in neuropsychological performance were analyzed using generalized linear models. Furthermore, to investigate whether adult ADHD and ARMS can be correctly classified based on the pattern of cognitive deficits, machine learning (i.e. random forests) was applied.
Compared to HC, both patient groups showed deficits in attention and impulsivity and verbal learning and memory. However, in adult ADHD patients the deficits were comparatively larger. Accordingly, a machine learning model predicted group membership based on the individual neurocognitive performance profile with good accuracy (AUC = 0.82).
Our results are in line with current meta-analyses reporting that impairments in the domains of attention and verbal learning are of medium effect size in adult ADHD and of small effect size in ARMS patients and suggest that measures of these domains can be exploited to improve the differential diagnosis between adult ADHD and ARMS patients.
Few studies have followed up patients with a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis for more than 2–3 years. We aimed to investigate the rates and baseline predictors for remission from CHR and transition to psychosis over a follow-up period of up to 16 years. Additionally, we examined the clinical and functional long-term outcome of CHR patients who did not transition.
We analyzed the long-term course of CHR patients that had been included in the longitudinal studies “Früherkennung von Psychosen” (FePsy) or “Bruderholz” (BHS). Those patients who had not transitioned to psychosis during the initial follow-up periods (2/5 years), were invited for additional follow-ups.
Originally, 255 CHR patients had been included. Of these, 47 had transitioned to psychosis during the initial follow-ups. Thus, 208 were contacted for the long-term follow-up, of which 72 (34.6%) participated. From the original sample of 255, 26%, 31%, 35%, and 38% were estimated to have transitioned after 3, 5, 10, and 16 years, respectively, and 51% had remitted from their high risk status at the latest follow-up. Better psychosocial functioning at baseline was associated with a higher rate of remission. Of the 72 CHR patients re-assessed at long-term follow-up, 60 had not transitioned, but only 28% of those were fully recovered clinically and functionally.
Our study shows the need for follow-ups and clinical attention longer than the usual 2–3 years as there are several CHR patients with later transitions and only a minority of CHR those without transition fully recovers.
Gender differences in symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia and first episode psychosis patients have often been reported. However, little is known about gender differences in those at risk of psychotic disorders. This study investigated gender differences in symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity (i.e. substance use, affective and anxiety disorders) and global functioning in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis.
The sample consisted of 336 ARMS patients (159 women) from the prodromal work package of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI; 11 centers). Clinical symptoms, drug use, comorbidity and functioning were assessed at first presentation to an early detection center using structured interviews.
In unadjusted analyses, men were found to have significantly higher rates of negative symptoms and current cannabis use while women showed higher rates of general psychopathology and more often displayed comorbid affective and anxiety disorders. No gender differences were found for global functioning. The results generally did not change when corrected for possible cofounders (e.g. cannabis use). However, most differences did not withstand correction for multiple testing.
Findings indicate that gender differences in symptomatology and comorbidity in ARMS are similar to those seen in overt psychosis and in healthy controls. However, observed differences are small and would only be reliably detected in studies with high statistical power. Moreover, such small effects would likely not be clinically meaningful.
Pituitary enlargement has been reported in individuals with schizophrenic psychosis or an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS). In a previous study, our group could show pituitary volume increase in first episode and ARMS patients with later transition to psychosis (ARMS-T). However, there are no longitudinal studies on this issue so far. We therefore examined longitudinally whether transition to psychosis would be accompanied by a further increase of pituitary volume in antipsychotic-naïve ARMS patients.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired from 23 antipsychotic-naïve individuals with an ARMS. Ten subjects developed psychosis (ARMS-T) and 13 did not (ARMS-NT). ARMS-T were re-scanned after the onset of psychosis, and ARMS-NT were re-scanned at the end of the study period.
There was no significant difference of the pituitary volume between ARMS-T and ARMS-NT in our sample, and there were no significant pituitary volume changes over time.
Longitudinally, we could not detect any further volumetric changes in the pituitary volume with transition to psychosis.
This, together with the result of our previous study, could indicate that the perceived level of stress in ARMS patients is constantly high from very early onward.
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