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The study of complex brain networks, where structural or functional connections are evaluated to create an interconnected representation of the brain, has grown tremendously over the past decade. Many of the statistical network science tools for analyzing brain networks have been developed for cross-sectional studies and for the analysis of static networks. However, with both an increase in longitudinal study designs and an increased interest in the neurological network changes that occur during the progression of a disease, sophisticated methods for longitudinal brain network analysis are needed. We propose a paradigm for longitudinal brain network analysis over patient cohorts, with the key challenge being the adaptation of Stochastic Actor-Oriented Models to the neuroscience setting. Stochastic Actor-Oriented Models are designed to capture network dynamics representing a variety of influences on network change in a continuous-time Markov chain framework. Network dynamics are characterized through both endogenous (i.e. network related) and exogenous effects, where the latter include mechanisms conjectured in the literature. We outline an application to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging setting with data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. We draw illustrative conclusions at the subject level and make a comparison between elderly controls and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease.
Despite the rapid expansion of online educational resources for emergency medicine, barriers remain to their effective use by emergency physicians and trainees. This article expands on previous descriptions of techniques to aggregate online educational resources, outlining four strategies to help learners navigate, evaluate, and contribute online. These strategies include 1) cultivating digital mentors, 2) browsing the most popular free open access medical education (FOAM) websites, 3) using critical appraisal tools developed for FOAM, and 4) contributing new online content.
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