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Despite their use in clinical practice, there is little evidence to support the use of therapist written goodbye letters as therapeutic tools. However, preliminary evidence suggests that goodbye letters may have benefits in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN).
This study aimed to examine whether therapist written goodbye letters were associated with improvements in body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptomology in patients with AN after treatment.
Participants were adults with AN (n = 41) who received The Maudsley Model of Anorexia Treatment for Adults (MANTRA) in a clinical trial evaluating two AN out-patient treatments. As part of MANTRA, therapists wrote goodbye letters to patients. A rating scheme was developed to rate letters for structure and quality. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between goodbye letter scores and outcomes after treatment.
Higher quality letters and letters that adopted a more affirming stance were associated with greater improvements in BMI at 12 months. Neither the overall quality nor the style of goodbye letters were associated with improvements in BMI at 24 months or reductions in eating disorder symptomology at either 12 or 24 months.
The results highlight the potential importance of paying attention to the overall quality of therapist written goodbye letters in the treatment of AN, and adopting an affirming stance.
With the advent of the Web, increased emphasis on “research data management,” and innovations in reproducible research practices, scholars have more incentives and opportunities to document and disseminate their primary data. This article seeks to guide archaeologists in data sharing by highlighting recurring challenges in reusing archived data gleaned from observations on workflows and reanalysis efforts involving datasets published over the past 15 years by Open Context. Based on our findings, we propose specific guidelines to improve data management, documentation, and publishing practices so that primary data can be more efficiently discovered, understood, aggregated, and synthesized by wider research communities.
The almost universally-occurring aggregated distributions of helminth burdens in host populations have major significance for parasite population ecology and evolutionary biology, but the mechanisms generating heterogeneity remain poorly understood. For the direct life cycle monogenean Discocotyle sagittata infecting rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, variables potentially influencing aggregation can be analysed individually. This study was based at a fish farm where every host individual becomes infected by D. sagittata during each annual transmission period. Worm burdens were examined in one trout population maintained in isolation for 9 years, exposed to self-contained transmission. After this year-on-year recruitment, prevalence was 100% with intensities 10–2628, mean 576, worms per host. Parasite distribution, amongst hosts with the same age and environmental experience, was highly aggregated with variance to mean ratio 834 and negative binomial parameter, k, 0.64. The most heavily infected 20% of fish carried around 80% of the total adult parasite population. Aggregation develops within the first weeks post-infection; hosts typically carried intensities of successive age-specific cohorts that were consistent for that individual, such that heavily-infected individuals carried high numbers of all parasite age classes. Results suggest that host factors alone, operating post-infection, are sufficient to generate strongly overdispersed parasite distributions, rather than heterogeneity in exposure and initial invasion.
Point spread function (PSF) deconvolution is an attractive software-based technique for resolution improvement in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) because it can restore information which has been blurred by challenging operating conditions. In Part 1, we studied a modern PSF determination method for SEM and explored how various parameters affected the method's ability to accurately estimate the PSF. In Part 2, we extend this exploration to PSF deconvolution for image restoration. The parameters include reference particle size, PSF smoothing (K), background correction, and restoration denoising (λ). Image quality was assessed by visual inspection and Fourier analysis. Overall, PSF deconvolution improved image quality. Low λ enhanced image sharpness at the cost of noise, while high λ created smoother restorations with less detail. λ should be chosen to balance feature preservation and denoising based on the application. Reference particle size within ±0.9 nm and K within a reasonable range had little effect on restoration quality. Restorations using background-corrected PSFs had superior quality compared with using no background correction, but if the correction was too high, the PSF was cut off causing blurrier restorations. Future efforts to automatically determine parameters would remove user guesswork, improve this method's consistency, and maximize interpretability of outputs.
The point spread function (PSF) of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) can be determined using a recently developed nanoparticle calibration method. Many parameters are involved in PSF determination and introduce a previously unstudied amount of uncertainty into the PSF size and shape. Signal type, support material thickness, reference particle size, PSF smoothing (K), and background correction were investigated regarding their effect on the PSF. Experimental data were complemented by CASINO simulations. Differences in detector position between the observed particles and the method's simulated reference particles caused shifting between secondary electron PSFs and backscattered electron PSFs. Support material thickness did not have a practical effect on the PSF at the tested voltages. Uncertainty in reference particle size varied the PSF full width at half maximum (FWHM) within ±0.7 nm at 2σ, with virtually no uncertainty in some cases. K and background correction within a reasonable range of values resulted in PSF FWHM differences within ±0.9 nm, except at 2 kV for K with an upper bound of ±1.9 nm due to increased noise. Tailoring K and background correction case-by-case would result in smaller differences. The interconnection of these parameters may help in future efforts to calculate their best selection.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Studies on the association between depression and dementia risk mostly use sum scores on depression questionnaires to model symptomatology severity. Since individual items may contribute differently to this association, this approach has limited validity.
We used network analysis to investigate the functioning of individual Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) items, of which, based on studies that used factor analysis, 3 are generally considered to measure apathy (GDS-3A) and 12 depression (GDS-12D). Functional disability and future dementia were also included in our analysis. Data were extracted from 3229 participants of the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care trial (preDIVA), analyzed as a single cohort, yielding 20,542 person-years of observation. We estimated a sparse network by only including connections between variables that could not be accounted for by variance in other variables. For this, we used a repeated L1 regularized regression procedure.
This procedure resulted in a selection of 59/136 possible connections. GDS-3A items were strongly connected to each other and with varying strength to several GDS-12D items. Functional disability was connected to all three GDS-3A items and the GDS-12D items “helplessness” and “worthlessness”. Future dementia was only connected to the GDS-12D item “memory problems”, which was in turn connected to the GDS-12D items “unhappiness” and “helplessness” and all three GDS-3A items.
Network analysis reveals interesting relationships between GDS items, functional disability and dementia risk. We discuss what implications our results may have for (future) research on the associations between depression and/or apathy with dementia.
Surprisingly few papers have attempted to develop a direct empirical test for overbidding in merger and acquisition contests. We develop such a test grounded on a necessary condition for profit-maximizing bidding behavior. The test is not subject to endogeneity concerns. Our results strongly support the existence of overbidding. We provide evidence that overbidding is related to conflicts of interest, but also some indirect evidence that it arises from failing to fully account for the winner’s curse.
A method is presented to determine the spatial distribution of electrons in the focused beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Knowledge of the electron distribution is valuable for characterizing and monitoring SEM performance, as well as for modeling and simulation in computational scanning electron microscopy. Specifically, it can be used to characterize astigmatism as well as study the relationship between beam energy, beam current, working distance, and beam shape and size. In addition, knowledge of the distribution of electrons in the beam can be utilized with deconvolution methods to improve the resolution and quality of backscattered, secondary, and transmitted electron images obtained with thermionic, FEG, or Schottky source instruments. The proposed method represents an improvement over previous methods for determining the spatial distribution of electrons in an SEM beam. Several practical applications are presented.
Whereas object pronouns regularly occurred before the main verb in Old and early Middle English, such word orders were to a large extent lost in Middle English prose by the end of the thirteenth century. Nevertheless, some isolated later texts still show regular preverbal occurrences of object pronouns. Such word orders are most frequent with three texts that are translations of French sources. This article closely examines one of these texts, the Middle English prose Brut, and its source, and argues that contact influence is the most plausible explanation for its distinct behaviour with respect to object pronoun placement. It is also shown that the translator does not slavishly follow his source and that the contact effects are mainly of the statistical type in that word orders occurring very marginally in other texts appear with high frequencies in the Brut while such a contrast is not found for a word order that is unattested elsewhere. These observations are compatible with the equally exceptional but slightly different distribution of object pronouns in another translation from French, the Ayenbite of Inwyt. The findings of this article show that translation-induced contact and, possibly, contact in bilingual language use more generally can have important quantitative effects and that these have to be seriously considered in any syntactic analysis of historical texts based on a foreign source text.
There are multiple formal characterizations of the natural numbers available. Despite being inter-derivable, they plausibly codify different possible applications of the naturals – doing basic arithmetic, counting, and ordering – as well as different philosophical conceptions of those numbers: structuralist, cardinal, and ordinal. Some influential philosophers of mathematics have argued for a non-egalitarian attitude according to which one of those characterizations is ‘more basic’ or ‘more fundamental’ than the others. This paper addresses two related issues. First, we review some of these non-egalitarian arguments, lay out a laundry list of different, legitimate, notions of relative priority, and suggest that these arguments plausibly employ different such notions. Secondly, we argue that given a metaphysical-cum-epistemological gloss suggested by Frege's foundationalist epistemology, the ordinals are plausibly more basic than the cardinals. This is just one orientation to relative priority one could take, however. Ultimately, we subscribe to an egalitarian attitude towards these formal characterizations: they are, in some sense, equally ‘legitimate’.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The study aimed to determine the effects of bilateral frontal active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA for 12 minute Versus sham stimulation on functional connectivity of the working memory network during an fMRI N-Back task. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Stimulation was delivered over bilateral frontal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via and MRI-compatible tDCS device during an fMRI working memory task in healthy older adults in a within-subject design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Active stimulation compared with sham resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity in working memory related brain regions during the N-Back task. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Older adults typically have reduced functional connectivity compared with young adults. Our findings demonstrate that a single session of tDCS can increase functional connectivity of the working memory network in older adults. Based on this mechanism of effect, tDCS may serve as an adjunctive method for interventions aiming to enhance cognitive processes in older adults.
Inflammation of the mammary gland following bacterial infection, commonly known as mastitis, affects all mammalian species. Although the aetiology and epidemiology of mastitis in the dairy cow are well described, the genetic factors mediating resistance to mammary gland infection are not well known, due in part to the difficulty in obtaining robust phenotypic information from sufficiently large numbers of individuals. To address this problem, an experimental mammary gland infection experiment was undertaken, using a Friesian-Jersey cross breed F2 herd. A total of 604 animals received an intramammary infusion of Streptococcus uberis in one gland, and the clinical response over 13 milkings was used for linkage mapping and genome-wide association analysis. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) was detected on bovine chromosome 11 for clinical mastitis status using micro-satellite and Affymetrix 10 K SNP markers, and then exome and genome sequence data used from the six F1 sires of the experimental animals to examine this region in more detail. A total of 485 sequence variants were typed in the QTL interval, and association mapping using these and an additional 37 986 genome-wide markers from the Illumina SNP50 bovine SNP panel revealed association with markers encompassing the interleukin-1 gene cluster locus. This study highlights a region on bovine chromosome 11, consistent with earlier studies, as conferring resistance to experimentally induced mammary gland infection, and newly prioritises the IL1 gene cluster for further analysis in genetic resistance to mastitis.
Second-mode wave growth within the hypersonic boundary layer of a slender cone is investigated experimentally using high-speed schlieren visualizations. Experiments were performed in AEDC Tunnel 9 over a range of unit Reynolds number conditions at a Mach number of approximately 14. A thin lens with a known density profile placed within the field of view enables calibration of the schlieren set-up, and the relatively high camera frame rates employed allow for the reconstruction of time-resolved pixel intensities at discrete streamwise locations. The calibration in conjunction with the reconstructed signals enables integrated spatial amplification rates (
factors) to be calculated for each unit Reynolds number condition and compared to
factors computed from both pressure transducer measurements and linear parabolized stability equation (PSE) solutions. Good agreement is observed between
factors computed from the schlieren measurements and those computed from the PSE solutions for the most-amplified second-mode frequencies. The streamwise development of
factors calculated from the schlieren measurements compares favourably to that calculated from the pressure measurements with slight variations in the
factor magnitudes calculated for harmonic frequencies. Finally, a bispectral analysis is carried out to identify nonlinear phase-coupled quadratic interactions present within the boundary layer. Multiple interactions are identified and revealed to be associated with the growth of disturbances at higher harmonic frequencies.
The Pediatric Heart Network designed a career development award to train the next generation of clinician scientists in paediatric-cardiology-related research, a historically underfunded area. We sought to identify the strengths/weaknesses of the programme and describe the scholars’ academic achievements and the network’s return on investment.
Survey questions designed to evaluate the programme were sent to applicants – 13 funded and 19 unfunded applicants – and 20 mentors and/or principal investigators. Response distributions were calculated. χ2 tests of association assessed differences in ratings of the application/selection processes among funded scholars, unfunded applicants, and mentors/principal investigators. Scholars reported post-funding academic achievements.
Survey response rates were 88% for applicants and 100% for mentor/principal investigators. Clarity and fairness of the review were rated as “clear/fair” or “very clear/very fair” by 98% of respondents, but the responses varied among funded scholars, unfunded applicants, and mentors/principal investigators (clarity χ2=10.85, p=0.03; fairness χ2=16.97, p=0.002). Nearly half of the unfunded applicants rated feedback as “not useful” (47%). “Expanding their collaborative network” and “increasing publication potential” were the highest-rated benefits for scholars. Mentors/principal investigators found the programme “very” valuable for the scholars (100%) and the network (75%). The 13 scholars were first/senior authors for 97 abstracts and 109 manuscripts, served on 22 Pediatric Heart Network committees, and were awarded $9,673,660 in subsequent extramural funding for a return of ~$10 for every scholar dollar spent.
Overall, patient satisfaction with the Scholar Award was high and scholars met many academic markers of success. Despite this, programme challenges were identified and improvement strategies were developed.