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We summarize what we assess as the past year's most important findings within climate change research: limits to adaptation, vulnerability hotspots, new threats coming from the climate–health nexus, climate (im)mobility and security, sustainable practices for land use and finance, losses and damages, inclusive societal climate decisions and ways to overcome structural barriers to accelerate mitigation and limit global warming to below 2°C.
We synthesize 10 topics within climate research where there have been significant advances or emerging scientific consensus since January 2021. The selection of these insights was based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings concern: (1) new aspects of soft and hard limits to adaptation; (2) the emergence of regional vulnerability hotspots from climate impacts and human vulnerability; (3) new threats on the climate–health horizon – some involving plants and animals; (4) climate (im)mobility and the need for anticipatory action; (5) security and climate; (6) sustainable land management as a prerequisite to land-based solutions; (7) sustainable finance practices in the private sector and the need for political guidance; (8) the urgent planetary imperative for addressing losses and damages; (9) inclusive societal choices for climate-resilient development and (10) how to overcome barriers to accelerate mitigation and limit global warming to below 2°C.
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Science has evidence on barriers to mitigation and how to overcome them to avoid limits to adaptation across multiple fields.
Childhood trauma is a vulnerability factor for the development of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Empirical findings suggest that trauma-related alterations in brain networks, especially in thalamus-related regions, have been observed in OCD patients. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and thalamic connectivity in patients with OCD remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the impact of childhood trauma on thalamic functional connectivity in OCD patients.
Magnetic resonance imaging resting-state scans were acquired in 79 patients with OCD, including 22 patients with a high level of childhood trauma (OCD_HCT), 57 patients with a low level of childhood trauma (OCD_LCT) and 47 healthy controls. Seven thalamic subdivisions were chosen as regions of interest (ROIs) to examine the group difference in thalamic ROIs and whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC).
We found significantly decreased caudate-thalamic rsFC in OCD patients as a whole group and also in OCD_LCT patients, compared with healthy controls. However, OCD_HCT patients exhibited increased thalamic rsFC with the prefrontal cortex when compared with both OCD_LCT patients and healthy controls.
Taken together, OCD patients with high and low levels of childhood trauma exhibit different pathological alterations in thalamic rsFC, suggesting that childhood trauma may be a predisposing factor for some OCD patients.
Introduction. The peel of lychee fruit turns from its attractive bright red color to a dull brown color when the fruit starts to age. This study reports how the color change of lychee pericarp from red to brown is associated with several factors and may be reversed depending on its pH, anthocyanin content and brown pigments. Materials and methods. After transport by air transit from China to Canada, arriving 4 d after harvest, the anthocyanin, brown pigment concentrations and the pH values in the lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp were determined over a period of 5 d at 25 °C and 65% RH. The macromolecular sizes of the brown pigment extract were measured in solutions between a pH of 4 and 6. Results and discussion. The acidity in the lychee pericarp decreased from a pH of 4.3 to 5.3, at the end of the 5-day period. The anthocyanins in the lychee pericarp decreased and the brown pigment increased. Polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp was active when its pH was between 4.1 and 4.6, and became less active when its pH was above 4.6. The diameter of the brown pigment molecules in the solutions increased when the pH of the solutions was increased and maintained for 5 d. The anthocyanins returned to their original redness and concentrations if they were placed in solutions with a pH value ranging between 4 and 6 for 10 min or they were placed in solutions with a pH value of 4 for 5 d. However, the anthocyanins did not return to their original redness and concentration if they were placed in solutions with a pH value ranging between 5 and 6 for 5 d. Conclusion. This study suggests that the bright red color of lychee peel could be maintained if its pericarp pH could be maintained at a pH of 4. If the pericarp pH is above 4, the reversibility of its bright red color from brown pigments is dependent on storage time.
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