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In recent years, soybean acreage has increased significantly in western Canada. One of the challenges associated with growing soybean in western Canada is the control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola, because most soybean cultivars are also glyphosate resistant. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of soybean seeding rate and planting date on competition with volunteer canola. We also attempted to determine how high seeding rate could be raised while still being economically feasible for producers. Soybean was seeded at five different seeding rates (targeted 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) and three planting dates (targeted mid-May, late May, and early June) at four sites across western Canada in 2014 and 2015. Soybean yield consistently increased with higher seeding rates, whereas volunteer canola biomass decreased. Planting date generally produced variable results across site-years. An economic analysis determined that the optimal rate was 40 to 60 plants m−2, depending on market price, and the optimal planting date range was from May 20 to June 1.
In a 2017 article, Holen and colleagues reported evidence for a 130 000-year-old
archaeological site in California. Acceptance of the site would overturn current
understanding of global human migrations. The authors here consider Holen
et al.’s conclusions through critical evaluation of
their replicative experiments. Drawing on best practice in experimental
archaeology, and paying particular attention to the authors’ chain of
inference, Magnani et al. suggest that to argue convincingly
for an early human presence at the Cerutti Mastodon site, Holen et
al. must improve their analogical foundations, test alternative
hypotheses, increase experimental control and quantify their results.
Flax yield can be severely reduced by weeds. The combination of limited herbicide options and the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds across the prairies has resulted in a need for more weed control options for flax producers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the tolerance of flax to topramezone, pyroxasulfone, flumioxazin, and fluthiacet-methyl applied alone as well as in a mix with currently registered herbicides. These herbicides were applied alone and in mixtures at the 1X and 2X rates and compared with three industry standards and one nontreated control. This experiment was conducted at Carman, MB, and Saskatoon, SK, as a randomized complete block with four replications. Data were collected for crop population, crop height, yield, and thousand-seed weight. Ratings for crop damage (phytotoxicity) were also taken at three separate time intervals: 7 to 14, 21 to 28, and 56+ d after treatment. Crop tolerance to these herbicides varied between site-years. This was largely attributed to differences in spring moisture conditions and the differences in soil characteristics between sites. Herbicide injury was transient. Hence, no herbicide or combination of herbicides significantly impacted crop yield consistently. Flumioxazin was the least promising herbicide evaluated, as it caused severe crop damage (>90%) when conditions were conducive. Overall, flax had excellent tolerance to fluthiacet-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone. Flax had excellent crop safety to the combination of pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone. However, mixing fluthiacet-methyl and topramezone with MCPA and bromoxynil, respectively, increased crop damage and would not be recommended.
We test the antiquity of a dietary life history model on Tutuila, American Samoa. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in serial, age-adjusted samples of first and third molars reveal isotopic biographies of 16 individuals from five late Holocene (200–1100 RCYBP) sites. Combining this with bone collagen from a larger sample of individuals, we document a patterned dietary life history on the island. Between ages zero and two years, infants show elevated δ15N values, consistent with a diet rich in breast milk. In early childhood (two–10 years), individuals shift to a diet with higher δ13C values, suggesting greater marine protein intake. Around age 10 years, males shift to a more terrestrially focused diet, while females retain a higher marine signature. After ~20 years of age, males and females are more similar in diet, with a greater contribution from terrestrial resources. We argue that these shifts reflect diet-marked social transitions in life histories, especially social status and eating order within households, as predicted from the ethnographic model. When contextualized with other archaeological data, such as mortuary patterns and social organization, the isotopic biographic approach facilitates examination of diet-linked social transitions of individuals as they aged within ancient societies.
When people make decisions with a pre-selected choice option – a ‘default’ – they are more likely to select that option. Because defaults are easy to implement, they constitute one of the most widely employed tools in the choice architecture toolbox. However, to decide when defaults should be used instead of other choice architecture tools, policy-makers must know how effective defaults are and when and why their effectiveness varies. To answer these questions, we conduct a literature search and meta-analysis of the 58 default studies (pooled n = 73,675) that fit our criteria. While our analysis reveals a considerable influence of defaults (d = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.53–0.83), we also discover substantial variation: the majority of default studies find positive effects, but several do not find a significant effect, and two even demonstrate negative effects. To explain this variability, we draw on existing theoretical frameworks to examine the drivers of disparity in effectiveness. Our analysis reveals two factors that partially account for the variability in defaults’ effectiveness. First, we find that defaults in consumer domains are more effective and in environmental domains are less effective. Second, we find that defaults are more effective when they operate through endorsement (defaults that are seen as conveying what the choice architect thinks the decision-maker should do) or endowment (defaults that are seen as reflecting the status quo). We end with a discussion of possible directions for a future research program on defaults, including potential additional moderators, and implications for policy-makers interested in the implementation and evaluation of defaults.
In response to concerns about acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant weeds in wheat production systems, we explored the efficacy of managing Bromus spp., downy and Japanese bromes, in a winter wheat system using alternative herbicide treatments applied in either fall or spring. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada over three growing seasons (2012–2014) to compare the efficacy of pyroxasulfone (a soil-applied very-long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor; WSSA Group 15) and flumioxazin (a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor; WSSA Group 14) against industry-standard ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy and Japanese brome control. Winter wheat injury from herbicide application was minor, with the exception of flucarbazone application at Scott. Bromus spp. control was greatest with pyroxsulam and all herbicide treatments containing pyroxasulfone. Downy and Japanese bromes were controlled least by thiencarbazone and flumioxazin, respectively, whereas Bromus spp. had intermediate responses to the other herbicides tested. Herbicides applied in fall resulted in reduced winter wheat yield relative to the spring applications. Overall, pyroxasulfone or pyroxsulam provided the most efficacious Bromus spp. control compared with the other herbicides and consistently maintained optimal winter wheat yields. Therefore, pyroxasulfone could facilitate management of Bromus spp. resistant to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat in the southern growing regions of western Canada. Improved weed control and delayed herbicide resistance may be achieved when pyroxasulfone is applied in combination with flumioxazin.
Using novel earnings calendar data, we show that firms’ advanced scheduling of earnings announcement dates foreshadows their earnings news. Firms that schedule later-than-expected announcement dates subsequently announce worse news than those scheduling earlier-than-expected announcement dates. Despite scheduling disclosures being observable weeks ahead of earnings announcements, we show that equity markets fail to reflect the information in these disclosures until the announcement itself. By also showing that option markets respond efficiently to volatility-timing information embedded in the same scheduling disclosures, we provide novel evidence that markets fail to react to information about future earnings despite investors immediately trading on the underlying signal.
Based on radio and X-ray observations, it has been suggested that a black hole of mass ∼106 Mʘ resides in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10. This unusual finding has important implications for the formation of massive black holes in the early universe since Henize 2-10 can be viewed as a low redshift analog to the first high-z galaxies. We present long-slit HST STIS spectra that include the central radio/X-ray source. While recent VLT-MUSE spectroscopic observations with 0″.7 seeing show no change in ionization near the central source, our higher spatial resolution STIS observations identify a distinct compact region at the location of the radio/X-ray source. Initial analysis reveals broader (FWHM ∼ 380 km s-1) blue-shifted lines of low ionization. Our analysis focuses on testing two scenarios: a LINER-like AGN and a young (few decades) SNR.
Interaction of Greenland’s marine-terminating glaciers with the ocean has emerged as a key term in the ice-sheet mass balance and a plausible trigger for their recent acceleration. Our knowledge of the dynamics, however, is limited by scarcity of ocean measurements at the glacier/ocean boundary. Here data collected near six marine-terminating glaciers (79 North, Kangerdlugssuaq, Helheim and Petermann glaciers, Jakobshavn Isbræ, and the combined Sermeq Kujatdleq and Akangnardleq) are compared to investigate the water masses and the circulation at the ice/ocean boundary. Polar Water, of Arctic origin, and Atlantic Water, from the subtropical North Atlantic, are found near all the glaciers. Property analysis indicates melting by Atlantic Water (AW; found at the grounding line depth near all the glaciers) and the influence of subglacial discharge at depth in summer. AW temperatures near the glaciers range from 4.5˚C in the southeast, to 0.16˚C in northwest Greenland, consistent with the distance from the subtropical North Atlantic and cooling across the continental shelf. A review of its offshore variability suggests that AW temperature changes in the fjords will be largest in southern and smallest in northwest Greenland, consistent with the regional distribution of the recent glacier acceleration.
As chemical management options for weeds become increasingly limited due to selection for herbicide resistance, investigation of additional nonchemical tools becomes necessary. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a methodology of weed management that targets and destroys weed seeds that are otherwise dispersed by harvesters following threshing. It is not known whether problem weeds in western Canada retain their seeds in sufficient quantities until harvest at a height suitable for collection. A study was conducted at three sites over 2 yr to determine whether retention and height criteria were met by wild oat, false cleavers, and volunteer canola. Wild oat consistently shed seeds early, but seed retention was variable, averaging 56% at the time of wheat swathing, with continued losses until direct harvest of wheat and fababean. The majority of retained seeds were >45 cm above ground level, suitable for collection. Cleavers seed retention was highly variable by site-year, but generally greater than wild oat. The majority of seed was retained >15 cm above ground level and would be considered collectable. Canola seed typically had >95% retention, with the majority of seed retained >15 cm above ground level. The suitability ranking of the species for management with HWSC was canola>cleavers>wild oat. Efficacy of HWSC systems in western Canada will depend on the target species and site- and year-specific environmental conditions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Tissue engineered tracheal grafts (TETG) could provide a life-saving cure for children with long segment airway defects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a novel and promising technique used to evaluate TETG performance. This pilot study examines the correlation of objective CFD simulations with subjective respiratory symptoms in a TETG large animal model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three-dimensional geometries of 1 TETG implanted sheep trachea were reconstructed from serial fluoroscopic images, allowing analysis with CFD simulations. Peak flow velocity (PFV) and peak wall shear stress (PWSS) across the graft as well as changes secondary to stenting were determined. CFD metrics were compared with respiratory symptoms seen on exam. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Two weeks after implantation, the animal developed respiratory distress, which correlated with PFV and PWSS elevations. Although the intraluminal graft appearance changed minimally after dilation, PFV and PWSS decreased across the graft (4.5–0.8 m/s and 0.9–0.1 Pa, respectively). Long-term TETG stenting with dilation returned PFV and PWSS to baseline (0.8–0.3 m/s and 0.1–0.01 Pa, respectively), which correlated with immediate symptom resolution. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: CFD is a noninvasive modality, which allows the evaluation of airflow metrics of symptomatic TETG recipients. This diagnostic tool will permit planned interventions and graft design optimization.
The escalating evolution of weed species resistant to acetolactase synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides makes alternative weed control strategies necessary for field crops that are dependent on this herbicide group. A fully integrated strategy that combined increased crop seeding rates (2X or 4X recommended), mechanical weed control with a minimum-tillage rotary hoe, and reduced-rate non–ALS inhibitor herbicides was compared with herbicides, rotary hoe, and seeding rates alone as a method of controlling ALS inhibitor–tolerant Indian mustard as a model weed. The full-rate herbicide treatment had the lowest weed biomass (98% reduction) and the highest yield of all treatments in 3 of 4 site-years, regardless of seeding rate. The fully integrated treatment at the 4X seeding rate had weed suppression rates equal to the full herbicide treatment at the recommended seeding rate. The fully integrated and reduced-rate herbicide treatments at the 4X seeding rate reduced weed biomass by 89% and 83%, respectively, compared with the control at the recommended seeding rate. The rotary hoe treatment alone resulted in poor weed control (≤38%), even at the highest seeding rate. Fully integrated and reduced-rate herbicide treatments at 2X and 4X seeding rates had yields equal to those of the full herbicide treatment at the recommended seeding rate. Partially or fully integrated weed control strategies that combine increased crop seeding rates and reduced-rate non–ALS inhibitor herbicides, with or without the use of a rotary hoe, can control weeds resistant to ALS-inhibitor herbicides, while maintaining crop yields similar to those achieved with full-rate herbicides. However, combining increased seeding rate, reduced-rate herbicides, and mechanical rotary hoe treatment into a fully integrated strategy maximized weed control, while reducing reliance on and selection pressure against any single weed control tactic.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
Concern over the development of herbicide-resistant weeds has led to interest in integrated weed management systems that reduce selection pressure by utilizing mechanical and cultural weed control practices in addition to herbicides. Increasing crop seeding rate increases crop competitive ability and thus can enhance herbicide efficacy. However, it is unknown how increasing the seeding rate affects an herbicide’s efficacy. The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between increasing seeding rate and herbicide dose to control weeds. To meet this objective, the herbicide fluthiacet-methyl was applied to field-grown lentil, with Indian mustard, a proxy for wild mustard, used as a model weed. The experiment was a factorial design with four lentil seeding rates and seven herbicide rates. Overall the herbicide dose response was altered by changing lentil seeding rate. Increasing lentil seeding rate decreased the weed biomass production when herbicides were not applied. In two of the four site-years, increasing lentil seeding rate lowered the herbicide ED50, the dose required to result in a 50% reduction in weed biomass. Increasing the crop seeding rate altered the dose response to provide greater weed control at lower herbicide rates compared with normal crop seeding rates. Increased seeding rates also resulted in higher and more stable crop seed yields across a wider range of herbicide dosages. These results suggest that dose–response models can be used to evaluate the efficacy of other weed management practices that can interact with herbicide performance.
Efficient natural dispersal of herbicide-resistance alleles via seed and pollen can markedly accelerate the incidence of herbicide-resistant weed populations across an agroecoregion. Studies were conducted in western Canada in 2014 and 2015 to investigate pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow in kochia. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to non-GR kochia was quantified in a field trial (hub and spoke design) at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Seed-mediated gene flow of acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant kochia as a function of tumbleweed speed and distance was estimated in cereal stubble fields at Lethbridge, Alberta and Scott, Saskatchewan. Regression analysis indicated that outcrossing from GR to adjacent non-GR kochia ranged from 5.3 to 7.5%, declining exponentially to 0.1 to 0.4% at 96 m distance. However, PMGF was significantly influenced by prevailing wind direction during pollination (maximum of 11 to 17% outcrossing down-wind). Seed dropped by tumbleweeds varied with distance and plant speed, approaching 90% or more (ca. 100,000 seeds or more) at distances of up to 1,000 m and plant speeds of up to 300 cm s–1. This study highlights the efficient proximal (pollen) and distal (seed) gene movement of this important GR weed.
The increasing occurrence of herbicide resistance, along with no new herbicide modes of action developed in over 30 yr, have increased the need for nonherbicidal weed management strategies and tactics. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) practices have been successfully adopted in Australia to manage problematic weeds. For HWSC to be effective, a high proportion of weed seeds must be retained on the plant at crop maturity. This 2-yr (2014, 2015) study evaluated seed shatter of wild oat, green foxtail, wild mustard, and cleavers in both an early (field pea) and late (spring wheat) maturity crop in field experiments at Scott, Saskatchewan. Seed shatter was assessed using shatter trays collected once a week during crop ripening stage, as well as at two crop maturation or harvest stages (swathing, direct-combining). Seed shatter differed among weed species, but was similar between crops at maturity: ca. 30% for wild oat, 5% for cleavers, < 2% for wild mustard, and < 1% for green foxtail. Overall, seed shatter of wild oat occurred sooner and at greater levels during the growing season compared with the other weed species. Viability of both shattered and plant-retained seeds was relatively high for all species. The small amount of seed shatter of cleavers, wild mustard, and green foxtail suggests that these species may be suitable candidates for HWSC. Due to the amount and timing of wild oat seed shatter, HWSC may not reduce population abundance of this grassy weed.
Desiccants are currently used to improve lentil dry-down prior to harvest. Applying desiccants at growth stages prior to maturity may result in reduced crop yield and quality, and leave unacceptable herbicide residues in seeds. There is little information on whether various herbicides applied alone or as a tank-mix with glyphosate have an effect on glyphosate residues in harvested seed. Field trials were conducted at Saskatoon and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada, from 2012 to 2014 to determine whether additional desiccants applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate improve crop desiccation and reduce the potential for unacceptable glyphosate residue in seed. Glufosinate and diquat tank mixed with glyphosate were the most consistent desiccants, providing optimal crop dry-down and a general reduction in glyphosate seed residues without adverse effects on seed yield and weight. Saflufenacil provided good crop desiccation without yield loss, but failed to reduce glyphosate seed residues consistently. Pyraflufen-ethyl and flumioxazin applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate were found to be inferior options for growers as they exhibited slow and incomplete crop desiccation, and did not decrease glyphosate seed residues. Based on results from this study, growers should apply glufosinate or diquat with preharvest glyphosate to maximize crop and weed desiccation, and minimize glyphosate seed residues.