To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Climate change can cause geographic displacement of the ecological niche of a species, so that similar species that previously did not coexist could begin to face new interactions. Such geographic displacement and increased competition can also be exacerbated by anthropic intervention. Until less than 100 years ago, Vultur gryphus and Coragyps atratus did not coexist. Nowadays, possibly as a result of climate change, changes in the distributions of both species created areas where they are now sympatric. Through ecological niche modeling, we evaluated the possible effects that future scenarios of climate change and human influence would have on the distribution and sympatry between the two species. Our models predict that the current distribution of V. gryphus will be reduced between 18% and 24% by 2050 and between 21% and 32% by 2070. Additionally, they predict that the distribution of C. atratus will be reduced by 31–52% by the year 2050 and 15–60% by 2070. The two algorithms predict a reduction in the areas of sympatry. However, for the northern Andes the overlap between the two species will increase, reaching up to 70% in the year 2070. The distribution of C. atratus will move towards higher areas in the altitudinal gradient, and this will generate an increase in the current sympatry between both species. No clear trend was observed on the effect of human influences on the areas of overlap between the scenarios evaluated. The possible effects of climate change and anthropic intervention in future scenarios found in this study highlight the need to include these effects in future analyses and conservation programs of V. gryphus and other threatened vultures.
Response to SSRIs suggests the implication of the serotonergic system in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, biological studies on serotonergic function in OCD have yielded contradictory results. Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity has been proposed as an index of cerebral serotonin activity.
The aim of this study was to examine platelet MAO activity in 29 OCD patients and 29 healthy controls matched by age, sex and tobacco use. We also explored the relationship between platelet MAO activity and aggressive obsessions in OCD patients.
There were no differences in platelet MAO activity between OCD patients and healthy controls. We found a significant correlation between platelet MAO activity and Y-BOCS scores in the group of patients with Y-BOCS scores >15.
OCD patients with aggressive obsessions had significantly lower levels of platelet MAO activity than patients without aggressive obsessions.
Our results suggest that platelet MAO activity may be a marker of OCD severity, and that low platelet MAO activity may be associated with aggressive obsessions in OCD patients.
The need to achieve a uniform distribution of concentrated solar flux in the photovoltaic, thermal or any other receivers is a common problem; therefore, the optical characterization of the concentration system is necessary to determinate the physical characteristics of the receptors. In this work, a parabolic dish concentrator of 1.65x1.65 m2, developed by research from the University of Arizona, is optically characterized under normal operating conditions, also known as environmental conditions that refer to non-controlled conditions as solar radiation, environmental temperature and wind velocity that could affect slightly, by thermal and mechanical efforts, the distribution profiles of the concentrated solar radiation. The set used for the evaluation consisted of the parabolic mirror and Chilled Lambertian Flat Surface installed in the focal point on the optical axis of the mirror. The evaluation was divided into two parts: a theoretical part that consist on using ray tracing simulation and an experimental part that corresponds to image analysis. The used methodology in this work has been stablish in many researches, so this is a reliable method. The global optical error was 2.3 mrad under normal operating conditions.
In December 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn’s northern hemisphere near 37° planetographic latitude. This rather surprising event, occurring at an unexpected latitude and time, is the sixth “Great White Spot” (GWS) storm observed over the last century and a half. Such GWS events are extraordinary, planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena that dramatically change the typically bland appearance of the planet. Occurring while the Cassini mission was on orbit at Saturn, the Great Storm of 2010–2011 was well suited for intense scrutiny by the suite of sophisticated instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft as well by modern instrumentation on ground-based telescopes and onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This GWS erupted on 5 December close to the peak of a westward jet and generated a major dynamical disturbance that affected the whole latitude band from 25° to 48°N. At the upper cloud level, following the rapid growth of the bright outbreak spot, a blunt aerodynamic-shaped head formed due to interaction of the spot with the westward zonal jet, with the winds reaching velocities of 160 m s−1 along the periphery of the arc. Eastward of the head, the disturbance progressed in the following months forming a turbulent wake or tail with growing vortices, one of them a major enduring anticyclone (called AV) with a size of ~11,000 km. Lightning events were prominent and detected as outbursts and flashes at the head and along the disturbance at both optical and radio wavelengths. The activity of the head ceased after about seven months when AV reached it, leaving the cloud structure and ambient winds perturbed. The tops of the optically dense clouds of the head reached the 300-mbar altitude level (~50 km below tropopause), where a mixture of ices was detected, including (1) a component of water ice lofted over 200 km altitude from its 10-bar condensation level, (2) ammonia ice as the predominant component and (3) a component that might be ammonium hydrogen sulfide ice. The energetics of the frequency and power of lightning, as well as the estimated power generated by the latent heat released in the water-based convection to create the observed dynamical three-dimensional flows, both indicate that the power released for much of the 7-month lifetime of the storm (~1017 Watts) was a significant fraction of Saturn’s total radiated power (~2.2 1017 W). A post-storm depletion of ammonia vapour was also measured in the upper troposphere. The effects of the storm propagated into the stratosphere, forming two warm air masses at the ~0.5- to 5-mbar pressure level altitude that later merged into a so-called “beacon” because of its 80 K temperature excess relative to its surroundings. Related to the stratospheric disturbance, hydrocarbon composition excesses were found, in particular for ethylene (C2H4), in the high stratosphere at the ~0.1- to 0.5-mbar altitude level. Numerical models of the storm dynamics explain the major observed features that essentially result from two processes: (1) a huge and sustained, moist, convective storm at the water clouds (altitude level 10–12 bar, or ~250–275 km below the tropopause) and (2) the interaction of the updraft columns with the ambient winds that generates the turbulent wake consisting of vortices and waves. Model simulations of the GWS require a low vertical shear of the zonal winds and low static stability across the weather layer where the disturbance develops. Its upward propagation into the stratosphere involves Rossby waves and their breaking and energy deposition to form the beacon and induce chemical changes.
The decades-long interval between storms is probably related to the insolation cycle and the long radiative time constant of Saturn’s atmosphere, and several theories for temporarily storing energy have been proposed.
Hii regions in galaxy disks can be used as a powerful tool to trace the radial distribution of several of their properties and shed some light on the different relevant processes on galaxy formation and evolution. Among the properties that can be extracted from the study of the ionized gas are the metallicity, the excitation and the hardness of the ionizing field of radiation. In this contribution we focus on the determination of both the ionization parameter (U) and the effective temperature of the ionizing clusters (T⋆) by means of a bayesian-like comparison between the observed relative fluxes of several emission-lines with the predictions from a set of photoionization models. We also show the implications that the use of our method has for the study of the radial variation of both U and T⋆ in some very well-studied disk galaxies of the Local Universe.
The diet and habitat of Leptomeryx sp. from the Late Uintan Yolomécatl Formation of NW Oaxaca, SE Mexico were inferred using dental enamel carbon and oxygen isotopic relationships, and compared with those of congeneric species from temperate North America. Results show that Leptomeryx sp. fed on C3 plants and lived in open forest or forest/savanna ecotone. The palynoflora and co-occurrence of perissodactyls and artiodactyls that live in an environment like that of Leptomeryx support this interpretation. Further, both records disclose that in NW Oaxaca (southern North America) tropical conditions prevailed at that time, unlike that of temperate North America.
Objectives: The methodological quality of an economic evaluation performed alongside a clinical trial can be underestimated if the paper does not report key methodological features. This study discusses methodological assessment issues on the example of a systematic review on cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy for knee osteoarthritis.
Methods: Six economic evaluation studies included in the systematic review and related clinical trials were assessed using the 10-question check-list by Drummond and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale.
Results: All economic evaluations were performed alongside a clinical trial but the studied interventions were too heterogeneous to be synthesized. Methodological quality of the economic evaluations reported in the papers was not free of drawbacks, and in some cases, it improved when information from the related clinical trial was taken into account.
Conclusions: Economic evaluation papers dedicate little space to methodological features of related clinical trials; therefore, the methodological quality can be underestimated if evaluated separately from the trials. Future economic evaluations should follow more strictly the recommendations about methodology and the authors should pay special attention to the quality of reporting.
We study the radial distribution of oxygen and nitrogen abundances in H ii regions in 350 galaxies observed in the CALIFA survey using the semi-empirical N-sensitive code Hii-Chi-mistry. A separate analysis of N/O when using [N ii] is justified as the dispersion in the O/H-N/O diagram is very large. In fact different O/H and N/O slope distributions and flattening in the outskirts are obtained.On the other hand there is a tight correlation between O/H and N/O when the values of the fittings at the effective radius are considered as representative of each galaxy.
This work shows the development of several models for chain-growth polymerizations that admit the direct calculation of the complete molecular weight distribution of the polymer. The direct and complete calculation implies that no statistical mean values are employed as in the moments method neither numerical approximations like in the minimum-squared based methods. The free radical polymerization of ethylene (LDPE) and the coordination via metallocenes polymerization of ethylene (HDPE) are taken as examples for analysis.
In the free radical polymerization case, the conventional scheme for chain-growth polymerization is adopted, with steps for initiation, propagation, chain transfer to small species and the additional step of chain transfer to dead chains . The kinetic parameter are obtained from the open literature. Two kind of reactors were modelled: batch and continuous stirred tank reactor. For this last case, a simulation strategy was considered in which the run started from an initial known population of dead chains. Results show that typical non-linear polymerization profiles for the molecular weight distribution are obtained. For the coordination polymerization of ethylene via metalocenes, the standard coordination model was employed . A two-site catalyst was considered and kinetic parameters reported in the open literature were used. For this study an experimental program in a lab-scale reactor was undertaken in order to obtain modelling data . Results show that the standard model adequately reproduces the experimental data in the kinetic and molecular attributes of the polymer.
This is the first detailed analysis of a CO2 diffuse degassing time series from Deception volcano, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, performed during an episode of anomalously high long-period (LP) seismicity. Diffuse CO2 emissions measured by an automatic geochemical station between 7 December 2009 and 13 February 2010 showed an excellent temporal agreement with the LP seismicity in December 2009. The absence of such a temporal correlation with the second burst of seismicity that occurred in late January 2010 suggests a different source for this LP activity. This was confirmed by analysis of seismic array data. The LP seismicity observed during December 2009 was caused by fluid-driven cracks that originated from pressure fluctuations in the volcano-hydrothermal systems beneath Deception volcano that were probably caused by a deep injection of undegassed magma before December 2009. The diffuse CO2 degassing data have provided evidence of the activation of at least two different sources of seismicity during the study period at Deception volcano.
An experimental study oriented to gather kinetic modelling data in the ethylene polymerization via metallocenes is reported. Also is illustrated the employment of two methods for determination of kinetic behavior and the instantaneous activity of Ziegler-Natta catalysts in the slurry polymerization of ethylene. The theoretical basis for both methods is described as well as the required instrumentation for its implantation at a laboratory level. An experimental program of polymerization with two different metallocenic systems was executed, showing that the direct (measurement of ethylene flow) as well as the calorimetric method (based on energy balances) give equivalent high quality information on the kinetic performance of the catalyst.
This work presents results on the prediction of the molecular weight distributions (MWD) of chain growth polymerization using conventional software and hardware tools. The investigation focuses on two kinds of polymerization processes: free radical batch and continuous polymerization processes with application to low density polyethylene synthesis (LDPE); and coordination polymerization via metallocenes with application to high density polyethylene synthesis (HDPE). For both processes, kinetic models, consisting of sets of differential equations describing the dynamic behavior of all the chemical species in the reaction media, are presented. From these sets is possible to obtain the molecular weight distribution of the polymer1,2,4
Strategies for the simulation of the polymerization models were developed and results of these simulations are presented. On the free radical polymerization case, the next results are highlighted: i) It was confirmed that the chain transfer to polymer step produces strong asymmetries on the MWD as well as a high polydispersity index; ii) It’s possible to calculate the MWD in the CSTR process through a simulation strategy that permits the decoupling of the live and dead chains populations. On the metallocene polymerization case, it was demonstrated that the coordination standard model represents well the system experimentally studied and it can be employed to directly calculate the molecular weight distribution.
These results confirm the idea that the complete MWD can be directly calculated with conventional hardware and software tools.
A multidisciplinary study from a number of drilled cores in the Guadalquivir estuary has made possible to identify as many as three extreme wave events and their facies in the 4th millennium BP (A: ~ 4000 cal yr BP, B: ~ 3550 cal yr BP, and C: ~ 3150 cal yr BP). These events, which caused strong erosion in the Guadalquivir sandy barrier and in the neighboring aeolian systems of El Abalario, brought about significant paleogeographical changes that may have affected human settlements established in the area during the Neolithic and Copper Age periods and during the Middle Bronze Age. The three events can be spatially correlated and their facies differentiated from more proximal to more distal from the coastline. The most proximal facies is characterized by a massive accumulation of shells, a sandy or sandy–muddy matrix, an erosive base, a highly diverse mixture of species (marine and estuarine), and lithoclasts. The most distal facies presents a muddy–sandy matrix, dominance of estuarine fauna, shell accumulation, presence of terrestrial species, mudpebbles, pebbles in a clayey matrix, and bioturbation. The evidence presented will further advance scientific knowledge about the impact of extreme wave events on coastal areas in SW Iberia and NW Africa.
The kinetic performance of metallocene type catalysts as well as their instantaneous activity is determined on line by two independent methods in the semi-batch polymerization of ethylene via metallocenes. On the basis of first-principles, both methods are described and guidelines for their implementation at a laboratory scale reactor are offered. Polymerization tests were conducted with two heterogenized metallocene catalysts showing that the direct method (based on ethylene flow measurement) and also the calorimetric method (based on energy balances) reported equivalent high quality information. The calorimetric method here developed can be readily used by the chemical practitioner as the notions and tools required for its implantation are easily grasped. It is noted that the calorimetric method has the advantage of requiring a low cost instrumentation (only thermocouples) whereas the direct method needs a relatively more sophisticated equipment (mass flow meter).
The Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) project is an ongoing 3D spectroscopic survey of 600 nearby galaxies of all kinds. This pioneer survey is providing valuable clues on how galaxies form and evolve. Processed through spectral synthesis techniques, CALIFA datacubes allow us to, for the first time, spatially resolve the star formation history of galaxies spread across the color-magnitude diagram. The richness of this approach is already evident from the results obtained for the first ~ 1/6 of the sample. Here we show how the different galactic spatial sub-components (“bulge” and “disk”) grow their stellar mass over time. We explore the results stacking galaxies in mass bins, finding that, except at the lowest masses, galaxies grow inside-out, and that the growth rate depends on a galaxy's mass. The growth rate of inner and outer regions differ maximally at intermediate masses. We also find a good correlation between the age radial gradient and the stellar mass density, suggesting that the local density is a main driver of galaxy evolution.
This study broaches in a novel way the analysis of cognitive impairment characteristic of the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Specifically, we attempt to determine the acoustic speech parameters that are sensitive to the onset of the disease, and their association with the language deficit characteristic of AD. Speech analysis was carried out on 21 elderly patients with AD using Praat software, which analyzes the acoustic components of speech. The data obtained were subjected to stepwise regression, using the overall scores obtained in the test as the criterion variable, and the scores on the frequency, amplitude and periodicity variables as predictors of performance. We found that the percentage of voiceless segments explains a significant portion of the variance in the overall scores obtained in the neuropsychological test. This component seems to be related mainly to the patient's ability in phonological fluency. This finding could permit the creation of a diagnostic test for AD through analysis of the acoustic speech parameters at very low cost in terms of both time and resources.