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Social cognition tasks, such as identification of emotions, can contribute to the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. The wide use of Facial Emotion Recognition Test (FERT) is hampered by the absence of normative dataset and by the limited understanding of how demographic factors such as age, education, gender, and cultural background may influence the performance on the test.
We analyzed the influence of these variables in the performance in the FERT from the short version of the Social and Emotional Assessment. This task is composed by 35 pictures with 7 different emotions presented 5 times each. Cognitively healthy Brazilian participants (n = 203; 109 females and 94 males) underwent the FERT. We compared the performance of participants across gender, age, and educational subgroups. We also compared the performance of Brazilians with a group of French subjects (n = 60) matched for gender, age, and educational level.
There was no gender difference regarding the performance on total score and in each emotion subscore in the Brazilian sample. We found a significant effect of aging and schooling on the performance on the FERT, with younger and more educated subjects having higher scores. Brazilian and French participants did not differ in the FERT and its subscores. Normative data for employing the FERT in Brazilian population is presented.
Data here provided may contribute to the interpretation of the results of FERT in different cultural contexts and highlight the common bias that should be corrected in the future tasks to be developed.
To prospectively evaluate growth parameters assessed by weight and length in infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and followed from birth to 18 months.
A cohort consisting of ninety-seven uninfected and forty-two infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers enrolled from 1995 to 2004, and admitted during their first 3 months of life at a referral Pediatric AIDS Clinic in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Infants were followed until 18 months of age. Data were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression models for weight and length fitted by restricted maximum likelihood.
Infected infants contributed to 466 weight and 411 recumbent length measurements. Uninfected infants provided 924 weight and 907 length measurements. Mean birth weight and length were similar in both groups, 3·1 (sd 0·4) and 3·0 (sd 0·5) kg, and 48·7 (sd 1·4) and 48·8 (sd 2·9) cm for uninfected and infected infants, respectively. However, HIV-1 infection had an early impact in growth impairment: at 6 months of age, HIV-infected children were 1 kg lighter and 2 cm shorter than the uninfected.
Growth faltering in weight, but not length, in HIV-infected children in Brazil is more marked than that reported in a European cohort, probably reflecting background nutritional deficiencies and concomitant infections. In these settings, early and aggressive nutritional management in HIV-1-infected infants should be a priority intervention associated with the antiretroviral therapy.
To calculate the sensitivity, specificity and agreement of body mass index (BMI) values proposed by Cole et al. (Br. Med. J. 2000; 320: 1) and Must et al. (Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991; 53: 839 & 54: 773) with weight-for-height index in the nutritional evaluation of children.
Criterion standards for diagnostic tests.
North-east and south-east Brazil.
Two thousand nine hundred and twenty children studied in Life Pattern Research performed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in 1997. Main outcome measures are the sensitivity, specificity and agreement of BMI values proposed by Must et al. (1991) and Cole et al. (2000).
Sensitivity of values proposed by both authors was around 90%. Specificity was almost 100% considering weight-for-height index as the gold standard. The agreement of both values with weight-for-height index, based on kappa results, was good and in pre-school children it was excellent.
Values proposed by Cole et al. (2000) and Must et al. (1991) should be used carefully to screen obesity in childhood but can be used to ‘diagnose’ overweight children with a very low chance of having false-positive results. Although the values proposed by both authors performed similarly, use of Cole et al.'s values should be encouraged. The latter cover children from 2 to 6 years old; their values are presented for six-month age intervals; they are based on a larger sample from six different countries; and they are related to the definition of adult obesity.
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