The characteristics of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a neurosurgical department were studied over a 5-year period. The rate of nosocomial BSI was 3.0%. Gram-negative bacteria were the most commonly isolated pathogens (65.9% of isolates). For all the pathogens isolated, the rate of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents was high. Of the 101 patients with nosocomial BSI, 50 (49.5%) died during their stay at the Department of Neurosurgery. At the same time, overall mortality rate among neurosurgical inpatients without nosocomial BSI was 5.4% (ie, 175 of 3,216 patients died).