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The association between the consumption of dairy products and risk of CVD has been inconsistent. There is a lack of studies in populations with high intakes of dairy products. We aimed to examine the association between intake of dairy products and risk of incident major adverse coronary events and stroke in the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort study. We included 26 190 participants without prevalent CVD or diabetes. Dietary habits were obtained from a modified diet history, and endpoint data were extracted from registers. Over an average of 19 years of follow-up, 3633 major adverse coronary events cases and 2643 stroke cases were reported. After adjusting for potential confounders, very high intakes of non-fermented milk (>1000 g/d) compared with low intakes (<200 g/d) were associated with 35 % (95 % CI (8, 69)) higher risk of major adverse coronary events. In contrast, moderate intakes of fermented milk (100–300 g/d) were associated with a lower risk of major adverse coronary events compared with no consumption. Intakes of cheese (only in women) and butter were inversely associated with the risk of major adverse coronary events. We observed no clear associations between any of the dairy products and stroke risk. These results highlight the importance of studying different dairy foods separately. Further studies in populations with high dairy consumption are warranted.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
Dietary carbohydrates have long been expected to be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the associations for many carbohydrates and carbohydrate-rich foods remain inconclusive. This study analysed associations between intakes of six types of carbohydrates and thirteen carbohydrate-rich foods with incident type 2 diabetes in 26 622 participants (61 % women) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study in southern Sweden. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1991–1996) by using a modified diet history method. During mean follow-up of 18 years, 4046 cases were identified. Adjusting for potential confounders (including lifestyle, BMI and dietary factors), comparing highest v. lowest quintile of intake, monosaccharides (hazard ratio (HR) 0·88; 95 % CI 0·79, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·02) and fruits (HR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·01; Ptrend = 0·03) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes, while disaccharides (HR 1·17; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·30; Ptrend = 0·002) and sweets (HR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·19; Ptrend = 0·02) were positively associated. After stratification by sex, marmalade/honey/jam (HR 0·82; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·94; Ptrend < 0·001) and vegetables (HR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·06) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in men and chocolate (HR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·46; Ptrend < 0·001) was positively associated in women. In conclusion, we identified inverse associations for intake of monosaccharides and fruits with type 2 diabetes risk, and positive associations for disaccharides and sweets. Additional sex-specific associations were also identified. Future studies are needed to explore these associations further.
When compared to other primates, humans elicit a large variation in the copy number for the salivary amylase gene, AMY1. This variation can range from 2 to 17 copies. The AMY1 gene is responsible for coding for salivary amylase, an enzyme needed to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch molecules into smaller sugars. AMY1 copy number correlates with the amount and activity of salivary amylase. Few studies have investigated the effect of amylase copy number on fasting and postprandial glucose levels. The aim was first to investigate the association between AMY1 copy numbers and fasting glucose in an observational study, and secondly to investigate the difference in postprandial effect of high-starch meals in individuals with either high or low AMY1 copy numbers.
Materials and methods
For the observational study, we used data from 436 participants from the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) cohort whom have been genotyped for AMY1. For the meal study (conducted during May 2019), we used genotype-based-recall to recruit 24 participants from the observational study of the MOS cohort: 12 with low AMY1 copy number (from the lowest 20%) and 12 with high AMY1 copy numbers (from the highest 20%). Each subject will be served a breakfast meal of white wheat bread on two separate test days: one containing 40 g and the other containing 80 g of carbohydrates (mainly starch). Blood samples will then be taken at various time points to investigate postprandial glucose and insulin responses.
When using linear regression analyses adjusting for age and sex, no significant association between AMY1 copy number and fasting glucose was observed (p = 0.23). However, there was a difference (p = 0.05) in fasting glucose levels between the lowest (2–4 copy numbers: 5.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 5.13–5.50) and highest (10–16 copy numbers: 5.57 mmol/L; 95% CI: 5.39–5.75) copy number groups. The results for the meal study will be obtained in June 2019 and be presented at the conference.
Our findings of higher fasting glucose among the group with more than 10 AMY1 copy numbers is the first study to find this and needs to be replicated in other populations.
Increased attention has been paid to circadian patterns and how predisposition to metabolic disorders can be affected by meal timing. Currently, it is not clear which role can be attributed to the foods selected at meals. On a cross-sectional sub-cohort study (815 adults) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study, we investigated whether the same foods (vegetables, fruits, refined grains, whole grains, red and processed meats) eaten at different meals (breakfast, lunch or dinner) show different associations with biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. Meal-specific usual intakes were calculated from multiple 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models showed that intake of vegetables at breakfast was associated with lower LDL-cholesterol (−0·37 mmol/l per 50 g; 95 % CI −0·61, −0·12) and vegetables at dinner was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol (0·05 mmol/l per 50 g; 95 % CI 0, 0·10). Fruit intake at breakfast was associated with lower glycated Hb (HbA1c) (−0·06 % per 50 g; 95 % CI −0·10, −0·01) and fruits at dinner with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0·21 mg/l per 50 g; 95 % CI −0·42, −0·01). Red and processed meat intake at breakfast was associated with higher HbA1c (0·25 % per 50 g; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·46) and CRP (0·76 mg/l per 50 g; 95 % CI 0·15, 1·36). Our results suggest that by preferring fruits and vegetables and avoiding red and processed meats at specific meals (i.e. breakfast and dinner), cardiometabolic profiles and ultimately chronic disease risk could be improved. Lunch seemed to be a less important meal in terms of food–biomarker associations.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns associated with cardio-metabolic traits and to examine whether these predict prospective changes in these traits and incidence of the metabolic syndrome (iMetS). Subjects from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cardiovascular cohort without cardio-metabolic disease and related drug treatments at baseline (n 4071; aged 45–67 years, 40 % men) were included. We applied reduced rank regression on thirty-eight foods to derive patterns that explain variation in response variables measured at baseline (waist circumference, TAG, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin). Patterns were examined in relation to change in cardio-metabolic traits and iMetS in subjects who were re-examined after 16·7 years (n 2704). Two dietary patterns (‘Western’ and ‘Drinker’) were retained and explained 3·2 % of the variation in response variables. The ‘Western’ dietary pattern was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol and positively with all other response variables (both at baseline and follow-up), but there was no association with LDL at follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, the ‘Western’ dietary pattern was associated with higher risk of iMetS (hazard ratio Q4 v. Q1: 1·47; 95 % CI 1·23, 1·77; Ptrend=1·5×10−5). The ‘Drinker’ dietary pattern primarily explained variation in HDL and was not associated with iMetS. In conclusion, this study supports current food-based dietary guidelines suggesting that a ‘Western’ dietary pattern with high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages and red and processed meats and low intakes of wine, cheese, vegetables and high-fibre foods is associated with detrimental effects on cardio-metabolic health.
To investigate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for changing dietary intake, particularly energy, fat and fibre intakes, in the intervention group (IG) compared with the control group (CG).
Randomised controlled trial.
IG (n 50) and CG (n 46). The IG was offered seven group sessions, including one cooking class, over a period of 4 months. The participants filled out 4 d food diaries at the start, mid and end of the study.
Iraqi-born residents of Malmö, Sweden, at increased risk for developing diabetes.
At baseline, participants’ fat intake was high (40 % of total energy intake (E%)). The predefined study goals of obtaining <30 E% from fat and ≥15 g fibre/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) were met by very few individuals. In the IG v. the CG, the proportion of individuals obtaining <40 E% from fat (48·4 v. 34·6 %, P=0·65), <10 E% from saturated fat (32·3 v. 11·5 %, P=0·14) and ≥10 g fibre/4184 kJ (45·2 v. 26·9 %, P=0·46) appeared to be higher at the last visit, although the differences were statistically non-significant. A trend towards decreased mean daily intakes of total energy (P=0·03), carbohydrate (P=0·06), sucrose (P=0·02) and fat (P=0·02) was observed within the IG. Differences in changes over time between the groups did not reach statistical significance.
Although no significant differences were observed in the two groups, our data indicate that this culturally adapted programme has the potential to modify dietary intake in Middle Eastern immigrants. The high fat intake in this group should be addressed.
Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north–south gradient. Vitamin B2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (Ptrend< 0·001). Vitamin B6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (Ptrend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
Diets high in protein have shown positive effects on short-term weight reduction and glycaemic control. However, the understanding of how dietary macronutrient composition relates to long-term risk of type 2 diabetes is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine intakes of macronutrients, fibre and protein sources in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. In total, 27 140 individuals, aged 45–74 years, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, were included. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method, including registration of cooked meals. During 12 years of follow-up, 1709 incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified. High protein intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1·27 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·49; P for trend = 0·01). When protein consumption increased by 5 % of energy at the expense of carbohydrates (HR 1·20; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·33) or fat (HR 1·21; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·33), increased diabetes risk was observed. Intakes in the highest quintiles of processed meat (HR 1·16; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·36; P for trend = 0·01) and eggs (HR 1·21; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·41; P for trend = 0·02) were associated with increased risk. Intake of fibre-rich bread and cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·98; P for trend = 0·004). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based prospective study indicate that high protein intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Replacing protein with carbohydrates may be favourable, especially if fibre-rich breads and cereals are chosen as carbohydrate sources.
To examine how different scoring models for a diet quality index influence associations with mortality outcomes.
A study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a diet history method. The index included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, fibre, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. Component scores were assigned using predefined (based on dietary recommendations) and population-based cut-offs (based on median or quintile intakes). Multivariate Cox regression was used to model associations between index scores (low, medium, high) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality by sex.
Malmö, the third largest city in Sweden.
Men (n 6940) and women (n 10 186) aged 44–73 years. During a mean follow-up of 14·2 years, 2450 deaths occurred, 1221 from cancer and 709 from CVD.
The predictive capability of the index for mortality outcomes varied with type of scoring model and by sex. Stronger associations were seen among men using predefined cut-offs. In contrast, the quintile-based scoring model showed greater predictability for mortality outcomes among women. The scoring model using median-based cut-offs showed low predictability for mortality among both men and women.
The scoring model used for dietary indices may have a significant impact on observed associations with disease outcomes. The rationale for selection of scoring model should be included in studies investigating the association between dietary indices and disease. Adherence to the current dietary recommendations was in the present study associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, particularly among men.
Increased plasma concentrations of small LDL particles denote an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) that is correlated with increased circulating TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol. Principal component analyses of subfraction concentrations have previously been used in the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort to identify three independent components, one pattern representing the ALP. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between macronutrient intakes and the principal component representing the ALP. We examined 4301 healthy subjects (46–68 years old, 60 % women) at baseline in the MDC cohort. Dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method. Plasma lipoprotein subfractions were measured using a high-resolution ion mobility method. The principal component corresponding to the ALP was significantly associated with a higher intake of disaccharides, and inversely related to protein and alcohol consumption (P < 0·001 for all). The present findings indicate that the ALP may be improved by a low intake of disaccharides, and moderate intakes of protein and alcohol.
Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19·83 (se 1·53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64·88 (se 1·86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18·73 (se 2·80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44·08 (se 2·45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources.
To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG).
A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose.
Men (n 4525) and women (n 8491) of the MDC cohort enrolled from September 1994 to October 1996.
For participants with high DQI-SNR scores, nutrient and food intakes were close to recommendations. However, most of the study population exceeded the recommended intake for SFA (98 %) and few reached recommended intakes for dietary fibre (24 %), fruit and vegetables (32 %), vitamin D (18 %) and folate (2 %). A high DQI-SNR score was positively associated with age, physical activity, not smoking, past food habit change, education and socio-economic status. Individuals with high scores were more likely to have a diabetes diagnosis or experienced a cardiovascular event.
Results suggest that the DQI-SNR is a useful tool for assessing adherence to the SNR 2005 and the SDG in the MDC cohort. No index has previously been developed with the aim of evaluating adherence to the current dietary recommendations in Sweden. Further validation of the DQI-SNR, and evaluation of its utility, is needed.
Valid dietary data are essential when trying to identify whether or not one or more dietary exposures are responsible for disease. We examined diet composition in women who reported dietary change in the past compared with non-changers, and how the associations between dietary factors and postmenopausal breast cancer are influenced by dietary change, obesity status and misreporting of energy.
A population-based prospective cohort study. Data were obtained by a diet history method, anthropometrical measurements and an extensive lifestyle questionnaire including items on past food habit change.
The Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) study, conducted in Malmö, Sweden.
A subsample of 12 781 women from the MDC cohort recruited from 1991 to 1996. A total of 428 postmenopausal women were diagnosed with incident breast cancer, during 9.2 years of follow-up.
Past food habit changers reported healthier food habits and lower energy intake compared with non-changers, a finding that raises issues regarding possible reporting biases. When excluding diet changers, the trend of increased breast cancer risk across omega-6 fatty acid quintiles was stronger, and a tendency of decreased risk emerged for ‘fruit, berries and vegetables’. When excluding individuals with non-adequate reports of energy intake, risk estimates were similar to that of the whole sample. In women with body mass index < 27 kg m− 2, significant trends of increased breast cancer risk were seen for total fat and omega-6 fatty acids, and of decreased risk for ‘fruit, berries and vegetables’.
This study indicates that both obesity and self-reported past food habit change may be important confounders of diet–breast cancer relationships. The study demonstrates that sensitivity analysis, through stratification, may facilitate interpretation of risk relationships and study results.
To examine if obesity status and socio-economic and lifestyle factors are associated with self-reported past food habit change, and also whether the level of obesity depends on the reason for change.
Cross-sectional analysis within the Malmo Diet and Cancer (MDC) study using data from the baseline examination and the extensive socio-economic and lifestyle questionnaire including questions of past food habit change. The risk of having changed food habits in the past was examined using logistic regression. Mean differences in obesity status across categories of reasons for past food habit change were examined using analysis of variance.
Malmö, the third largest city in Sweden.
A sub-sample (15 282 women and 9867 men) from the MDC cohort recruited from 1992 to 1996.
Individuals with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg m−2 had an increased risk of having reported past food habit change compared with individuals with BMI <25 kg m−2 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.48–1.83 for women; OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32–1.76 for men). The highest level of obesity was observed among individuals who had changed their diet due to reasons related to the metabolic syndrome. Changers were more likely to be highly educated and to live alone, be retired, ex-smokers and non-drinkers at baseline.
Because past food habit change is related to obesity and other lifestyle and socio-economic factors, a complex confounding situation may exist that could seriously influence observed relationships between diet and disease. Studies need to collect information on past food habit change and take this information into account in the analysis and when interpreting study outcomes.
The present study investigates the prevalence of misreporting of energy in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, and examines anthropometric, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics of the misreporters. Further, the influence of excluding misreporters on risk estimates of post-menopausal breast cancer was examined. Information of reported energy intake (EI) was obtained from a modified diet history method. A questionnaire provided information on lifestyle and socio-economic characteristics. Individual physical activity level (PAL) was calculated from self-reported information on physical activity at work, leisure time physical activity and household work, and from estimates of hours of sleeping, self-care and passive time. Energy misreporting was defined as having a ratio of EI to BMR outside the 95% CI limits of the calculated PAL. Logistic regression analysed the risk of being a low-energy reporter or a high-energy reporter. Almost 18% of the women and 12% of the men were classified as low-energy reporters, 2·8% of the women and 3·5% of the men were classified as high-energy reporters. In both genders high BMI, large waist circumference, short education and being a blue-collar worker were significantly associated with low-energy reporting. High-energy reporting was significantly associated with low BMI, living alone and current smoking. The results add support to the practice of energy adjustment as a means to reduce the influence of errors in risk assessment.
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