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Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) cause morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. We examined novel and/or modifiable risk factors for CLABSI to identify new potential targets for infection prevention strategies.
This single-center retrospective matched case-control study of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients was conducted in a 60-bed PICU from April 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. Case patients were in the PICU, had a central venous catheter (CVC), and developed a CLABSI. Control patients were in the PICU for ≥2 days, had a CVC for ≥3 days, and did not develop a CLABSI. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 on age, number of complex chronic conditions, and hospital length of stay.
Overall, 72 CLABSIs were matched to 281 controls. Univariate analysis revealed 14 risk factors, and 4 remained significant in multivariable analysis: total number of central line accesses in the 3 days preceding CLABSI (80+ accesses: OR, 4.8; P = .01), acute behavioral health needs (OR, 3.2; P = .02), CVC duration >7 days (8–14 days: OR, 4.2; P = .01; 15–29 days: OR, 9.8; P < .01; 30–59 days: OR, 17.3; P < .01; 60–89 days: OR, 39.8; P < .01; 90+ days: OR, 4.9; P = .01), and hematologic/immunologic disease (OR, 1.5; P = .05).
Novel risk factors for CLABSI in PICU patients include acute behavioral health needs and >80 CVC accesses in the 3 days before CLABSI. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce CLABSIs in this high-risk population.
Implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) can be challenging due to prescriber resistance. Although barriers to implementing new ASPs have been identified, little is known about how prescribers perceive established programs. This information is critical to promoting the sustainability of ASPs.
To identify how prescribers perceive an established pediatric inpatient ASP that primarily utilizes prior authorization.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey administered from February through June 2017 in a large children’s hospital. The survey contained closed- and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis approaches were used to analyze responses.
Of 394 prescribers invited, 160 (41%) responded. Prescribers had an overall favorable impression of the ASP, believing that it improves the quality of care (92.4% agree) and takes their judgment seriously (73.8%). The most common criticism of the ASP was that it threatened efficiency (26.0% agreed). In addition, 68.7% of respondents reported occasionally engaging in workarounds. Analysis of 133 free-text responses revealed that prescribers perceived that interacting with the ASP involved too many phone calls, caused communication breakdowns with the dispensing pharmacy, and led to gaps between approval and dispensing of antibiotics. Reasons given for workarounds included not wanting to change therapy that appears to be working, consultant disagreement with ASP recommendations, and the desire to do everything possible for patients.
Prescribers had a generally favorable opinion of an established ASP but found aspects to be inefficient. They reported engaging in workarounds occasionally for social and emotional reasons. Established ASPs should elicit feedback from frontline prescribers to optimize program impact.
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