To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recently, artificial intelligence-powered devices have been put forward as potentially powerful tools for the improvement of mental healthcare. An important question is how these devices impact the physician-patient interaction.
Aifred is an artificial intelligence-powered clinical decision support system (CDSS) for the treatment of major depression. Here, we explore the use of a simulation centre environment in evaluating the usability of Aifred, particularly its impact on the physician–patient interaction.
Twenty psychiatry and family medicine attending staff and residents were recruited to complete a 2.5-h study at a clinical interaction simulation centre with standardised patients. Each physician had the option of using the CDSS to inform their treatment choice in three 10-min clinical scenarios with standardised patients portraying mild, moderate and severe episodes of major depression. Feasibility and acceptability data were collected through self-report questionnaires, scenario observations, interviews and standardised patient feedback.
All 20 participants completed the study. Initial results indicate that the tool was acceptable to clinicians and feasible for use during clinical encounters. Clinicians indicated a willingness to use the tool in real clinical practice, a significant degree of trust in the system's predictions to assist with treatment selection, and reported that the tool helped increase patient understanding of and trust in treatment. The simulation environment allowed for the evaluation of the tool's impact on the physician–patient interaction.
The simulation centre allowed for direct observations of clinician use and impact of the tool on the clinician–patient interaction before clinical studies. It may therefore offer a useful and important environment in the early testing of new technological tools. The present results will inform further tool development and clinician training materials.
To understand how healthy menu labelling information is used by parents/caregivers and where it fits within predictors of healthy meal choices when eating out.
Parents were recruited to complete a 15-min observational, online survey regarding their experiences and hypothetical choices when eating out with their child/ren.
Eligible participants had one or more child/ren aged between 2 and 12 years and attended cafes, restaurants, hotels and clubs (CRHC) for lunch or dinner at least four times a year. Of initial respondents (n 1802), 92·5 % provided complete and valid data. Participants were 84·7 % female, ranging from 18 to 68 years old.
98·3 % believed that healthier alternatives should be available for children in CRHC. For general food choices, health was a strong motivator (45·7 %); however, parents reported eating at CRHC mainly for pleasure or a treat (61·2 %) and being driven by children’s taste preferences (85·9 %) when selecting menu items. 59·0 % of orders included a combination of healthy and traditional items. 42·0 % of the sample were influenced by the healthy choice (HC) labelling. Multiple regression revealed that, in addition to some demographic variables, the percent of HC ordered was positively associated with self-reported parent vegetable consumption, making food choices for the children for health reasons, familiarity with HC items and making order choices due to dietary needs and good nutrition.
Despite a preference for availability of healthier children’s menu choices in CRHC, menu labelling highlighting healthy options may have limited impact relative to child preferences.
Background: Approximately two-thirds of children aged <5 years receive out-of-home child care. Childcare attendees have an increased risk of infections compared to children not in childcare settings, possibly due to their close contact in a shared environment. As multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) increasingly move from healthcare-associated to community settings, childcare can provide a venue for further transmission of these pathogens. Our objective was to evaluate the bioburden of pathogens present on fomites in childcare centers and how surface contamination changes over time. Methods: The study was conducted in the single-room play area of an Ypsilanti, Michigan, childcare center caring for children aged 3–5 years. Polyester swabs were used to collect surface samples from 16 locations in the room, including (1) laminate, wood and plastic tabletops and furniture; (2) a stainless steel sink and adjacent plastic trash bin; and (3) wood, metal and plastic toys. A water sample was also collected at a 17th site. Samples were collected twice weekly for 5 of 6 weeks, followed by 1 additional collection (September–October 2019). Tryptic soy agar was used for standard plate counts and selective media were used to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vvancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae. Single-plex RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus and adenovirus. Results: Among 175 samples collected on 11 days, MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected from 10.3% (18 of 175) and 8.0% (14 of 175), respectively, of environmental specimens. No specimens were positive for VRE or norovirus. Adenovirus was detected in 20 of 175 specimens (11.4%). Median bioburden by site ranged from 85 CFU/mL to 2,510 CFU/mL. The highest median bioburden was observed at the sink (2,510 CFU/mL), followed by the plastic building block table (1,620 CFU/mL), the small wood blocks (1,565 CFU/mL) and water from a water play area and an adjacent tabletop (1,260 and 1,100 CFU/mL respectively). The highest single day bioburden was 273,000 CFU/mL at the sink. Conclusion: The presence of MDROs on childcare center fomites raised concern for exposure to these pathogens among vulnerable populations. More study is needed to determine the degree to which these contaminated fomites drive transmission between children. We found the highest bioburdens on sites where children played or washed with water, identifying potential targets for more frequent cleaning.
Disclosures: Emily T. Martin reports a consulting from Pfizer.
Systematic monitoring of exanthema is largely absent from public health surveillance despite emerging diseases and threats of bioterrorism. Michigan Child Care Related Infections Surveillance Program (MCRISP) is the first online program in child care centers to report pediatric exanthema.
MCRISP aggregated daily counts of children sick, absent, or reported ill by parents. We extracted all MCRISP exanthema cases from October 1, 2014 through June 30, 2019. Cases were assessed with descriptive statistics and counts were used to construct epidemic curves.
360 exanthema cases were reported from 12,233 illnesses over 4.5 seasons. Children ages 13-35 months had the highest rash occurrence (45%, n = 162), followed by 36-59 months (41.7%, n = 150), 0-12 months (12.5%, n = 45), and kindergarten (0.8%, n = 3). Centers reported rashes of hand-foot-mouth disease (50%, n = 180), nonspecific rash without fever (15.3%, n = 55), hives (8.1%, n = 29), fever with nonspecific rash (6.9%, n = 25), roseola (3.3%, n = 12), scabies (2.5%, n = 9), scarlet fever (2.5%, n = 9), impetigo (2.2%, n = 8), abscess (1.95, n = 7), viral exanthema without fever (1.7%, n = 6), varicella (1.7%, n = 6), pinworms (0.8%, n = 3), molluscum (0.6%, n = 2), cellulitis (0.6%, n = 2), ringworm (0.6%, n = 2), and shingles (0.2%, n = 1).
Child care surveillance networks have the potential to act as sentinel public health tools for surveillance of pediatric exanthema outbreaks.
The sustainability concept seeks to balance how present and future generations of humans meet their needs. But because nature is viewed only as a resource, sustainability fails to recognize that humans and other living beings depend on each other for their well-being. We therefore argue that true sustainability can only be achieved if the interdependent needs of all species of current and future generations are met, and propose calling this ‘multispecies sustainability’. We explore the concept through visualizations and scenarios, then consider how it might be applied through case studies involving bees and healthy green spaces.
Globally, over 1.97 billion adults and 338 million children and adolescents are living with overweight and obesity, increasing the risk of numerous co-morbidities, including at least 12 cancers(1). WCRF/AICR conducted a literature review of diet and physical activity as determinants of weight gain, overweight and obesity in adults and children. We also introduce a novel evidence-based policy framework for promoting physical activity, and linked database, currently in development as part of the EU-funded CO-CREATE project on child and adolescent obesity prevention.
Materials and Methods
Evidence on diet and physical activity as determinants and risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity was systematically extracted from existing reviews and a systematic search for recent meta-analyses, then collated and analysed. The WCRF Continuous Update Project Expert Panel drew conclusions about which exposures influence risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity, using pre-defined criteria that included evidence of biological plausibility.
The Panel identified strong evidence that several diet and physical activity related exposures influence the risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity in adults and children (see table 1). Separate conclusions were drawn for adults and children in relation to screen time, considered a marker of sedentary time.
However, the Panel noted that as exposures tend to cluster, physiologically interact and share common biological mechanisms, they should not be regarded as absolutely ‘singular'but an integrated concept of interrelated exposures within a pattern of lifestyle.
Screen time (adults)‘Fast foods’‘Western type’ diet
For full list of footnotes, see Energy Balance and Body Fatness report(1).
Healthy dietary patterns help prevent excess weight gain. Achieving such patterns requires attention to the broader economic, environmental and social factors that influence and constrain people's behaviour. The findings of this report support the need for evidence-based public health policy to help create health-enabling environments, particularly for children and adolescents. The WCRF International MOVING framework(2) presents a package of policies to promote physical activity, which alongside wider public health policy can help address the multiple drivers of overweight and obesity.
Suicidal ideation (SI) underlies risk of death by suicide. It is well established that patients with cancer are at increased risk of death by suicide. Therefore, understanding SI in patients with cancer is critically important. The goal of this systematic review was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, intervention, and assessment of SI in patients with cancer.
This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42018115405) and was guided by the PRISMA statement. We searched Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and assessed for quality assurance using a revised Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
We identified 439 studies to screen for eligibility. Eligible studies included adults with cancer diagnoses and listed SI as an outcome. Ultimately, 44 studies were included in the analyses. Prevalence of SI ranged greatly from 0.7% to 46.3%. Single items drawn from validated measures were the most frequent method of assessing SI (n = 20, 45.5%); additional methods included validated measures and psychological interviews. Commonly identified risk factors for SI included age, sex, and disease/treatment-related characteristics, as well as psychological constructs including depression, anxiety, hopelessness, existential distress, and social support.
Significance of Results
Assessment of SI in patients with cancer is the concern of researchers worldwide. Prevalence of SI varied with study population and was likely influenced by the method of assessment. Psychological distress consistently predicted SI. Increasing awareness of demographic, clinical, and psychological associations is critical for risk assessment and intervention development.
We designed two practical, user-friendly, low-cost, aesthetically pleasing resources, with the goal of introducing residents and observers to a new Competence by Design assessment system based on entrustable professional activities. They included a set of rotation- and stage-specific entrustable professional activities reference cards for bedside use by residents and observers and a curriculum board to organize the entrustable professional activities reference cards by stages of training based on our program's curriculum map. A survey of 14 emergency medicine residents evaluated the utilization and helpfulness of these resources. They had a positive impact on our program's transition to Competence by Design and could be successfully incorporated into other residency programs to support the introduction of entrustable professional activities-based Competence by Design assessment systems.
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) identify contextual factors such as policy that impacted the implementation of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) innovations among 12 Canadian research teams and (2) describe strategies used by the teams to address contextual factors influencing implementation of CBPHC innovations. In primary care settings, consideration of contextual factors when implementing change has been recognized as critically important to success. However, contextual factors are rarely recorded, analyzed or considered when implementing change. The lack of consideration of contextual factors has negative implications not only for successfully implementing primary health care (PHC) innovations, but also for their sustainability and scalability. For this evaluation, data collection was conducted using self-administered questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews with team representatives. We used a combination of directed and conventional content analysis approaches to analyze the questionnaire and interview data. Representatives from all 12 teams completed the questionnaire and 11 teams participated in the interviews; 40 individuals participated in this evaluation. Four themes representing contextual factors that impacted the implementation of CBPHC innovations were identified: (I) diversity of jurisdictions (II) complexity of interactions and collaborations (III) policy, and (IV) the multifaceted nature of PHC. The teams used six strategies to address these contextual factors including: (1) conduct an environmental scan at the beginning (2) maintaining engagement among partners and stakeholders by encouraging open and inclusive communication; (3) contextualizing the innovation for different settings; (4) anticipating and addressing changes, delays, and the need for additional resources; (5) fostering a culture of research and innovation among partners and stakeholders; and (6) ensuring information about the innovation is widely available. Implementing CBPHC innovations across jurisdictions is complex and involves navigating through multiple contextual factors. Awareness of the dynamic nature of context should be considered when implementing innovations.
Basic symptoms, defined as subjectively perceived disturbances in thought, perception and other essential mental processes, have been established as a predictor of psychotic disorders. However, the relationship between basic symptoms and family history of a transdiagnostic range of severe mental illness, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, has not been examined.
We sought to test whether non-severe mood disorders and severe mood and psychotic disorders in parents is associated with increased basic symptoms in their biological offspring.
We measured basic symptoms using the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Child and Youth Version in 332 youth aged 8–26 years, including 93 offspring of control parents, 92 offspring of a parent with non-severe mood disorders, and 147 offspring of a parent with severe mood and psychotic disorders. We tested the relationships between parent mental illness and offspring basic symptoms in mixed-effects linear regression models.
Offspring of a parent with severe mood and psychotic disorders (B = 0.69, 95% CI 0.22–1.16, P = 0.004) or illness with psychotic features (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.09–1.27, P = 0.023) had significantly higher basic symptom scores than control offspring. Offspring of a parent with non-severe mood disorders reported intermediate levels of basic symptoms, that did not significantly differ from control offspring.
Basic symptoms during childhood are a marker of familial risk of psychopathology that is related to severity and is not specific to psychotic illness.
Cascading effects of high trophic levels onto lower trophic levels have been documented in many ecosystems. Some studies also show evidence of extended trophic cascades, in which guilds dependent on lower trophic levels, but uninvolved in the trophic cascade themselves, are affected by the trophic cascade due to their dependence on lower trophic levels. Top-down effects of large mammals on plants could lead to a variety of extended trophic cascades on the many guilds dependent on plants, such as pollinators. In this study, floral-visitor and floral abundances and assemblages were quantified within a series of 1-ha manipulations of large-mammalian herbivore density in an African savanna. Top-down effects of large mammals on the composition of flowers available for floral visitors are first shown, using regressions of herbivore activity on metrics of floral and floral-visitor assemblages. An extended trophic cascade is also shown: the floral assemblage further altered the assemblage of floral visitors, according to a variety of approaches, including a structural equation modelling approach (model with an extended trophic cascade was supported over a model without, AICc weight = 0.984). Our study provides support for extended trophic cascades affecting floral visitors, suggesting that trophic cascades can have impacts throughout entire communities.
Social patterning of infectious diseases is increasingly recognised. Previous studies of social determinants of acute respiratory illness (ARI) have found that highly educated and lower income families experience more illnesses. Subjective social status (SSS) has also been linked to symptomatic ARI, but the association may be confounded by household composition. We examined SSS and ARI in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study in 2014–2015. We used SSS as a marker of social disadvantage and created a workplace disadvantage score for working adults. We examined the association between these measures and ARI incidence using mixed-effects Poisson regression models with random intercepts to account for household clustering. In univariate analyses, mean ARI was higher among children <5 years old (P < 0.001), and females (P = 0.004) at the individual level. At the household level, mean ARI was higher for households with at least one child <5 years than for those without (P = 0.002). In adjusted models, individuals in the lowest tertile of SSS had borderline significantly higher rates of ARI than those in the highest tertile (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.92). Households in the lowest tertile of SSS had significantly higher ARI incidence in household-level models (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05–2.03). We observed no association between workplace disadvantage and ARI. We detected an increase in the incidence of ARI for households with low SSS compared with those with high SSS, suggesting that socio-economic position has a meaningful impact on ARI incidence.
Biosurveillance is critical for early detection of disease outbreaks and resource mobilization. Child care center (CCC) attendance has long been recognized as a significant independent predictor for respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, but CCC surveillance is currently not part of the statewide disease surveillance system. The Michigan Child Care Related Infections Surveillance Program (MCRISP) is an independent, online reporting network with >30 local CCCs that was created to fill this surveillance gap.
To describe the capability of a novel CCC biosurveillance system (MCRISP) to report pediatric Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) illness over three years to (i) assess both the timing and magnitude of epidemics in CCCs and (ii) compare CCC outbreak patterns with those of the state database.
MCRISP collates real-time syndromic reports of illness from local county CCCs. The statewide Michigan Disease Surveillance System (MDSS) collects reports of diagnosed illness from designated laboratories, clinics, and hospitals statewide. We assessed epidemic curves based on MCRISP incidence rates and MDSS case counts for ILI and AGE over three seasons (2014-7).
A total of 4,627 MCRISP cases (2,425 ILI and 2,202 AGE reports) were reported during the three years of study surveillance. Epidemic patterns (seasonal peaks, troughs, and breadth) for both ILI and AGE in CCCs mirrored those reported at county and state levels, respectively. Two distinguishing features of CCC ILI outbreaks were noted in all three seasons: MCRISP ILI rates remained elevated after MDSS influenza counts abated, and MCRISP rates consistently peaked prior to MDSS influenza peaks. Neither of these phenomena were observed in comparing AGE outbreaks between surveillance systems.
ILI and AGE incidence rates from the MCRISP network appeared to broadly mirror epidemics from the established state surveillance system. MCRISP may act as a sentinel system for larger community outbreaks of respiratory disease.
Prior research has documented shared heritable contributions to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) as well as NSSI and suicide attempt (SA). In addition, trauma exposure has been implicated in risk for NSSI and suicide. Genetically informative studies are needed to determine common sources of liability to all three self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, and to clarify the nature of their associations with traumatic experiences.
Multivariate biometric modeling was conducted using data from 9526 twins [59% female, mean age = 31.7 years (range 24–42)] from two cohorts of the Australian Twin Registry, some of whom also participated in the Childhood Trauma Study and the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Project.
The prevalences of high-risk trauma exposure (HRT), NSSI, SI, and SA were 24.4, 5.6, 27.1, and 4.6%, respectively. All phenotypes were moderately to highly correlated. Genetic influences on self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and HRT were significant and highly correlated among men [rG = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.37–0.81)] and women [rG = 0.56 (0.49–0.63)]. Unique environmental influences were modestly correlated in women [rE = 0.23 (0.01–0.45)], suggesting that high-risk trauma may confer some direct risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among females.
Individuals engaging in NSSI are at increased risk for suicide, and common heritable factors contribute to these associations. Preventing trauma exposure may help to mitigate risk for self-harm and suicide, either directly or indirectly via reductions in liability to psychopathology more broadly. In addition, targeting pre-existing vulnerability factors could significantly reduce risk for life-threatening behaviors among those who have experienced trauma.
To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year.
A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada.
Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists. Sequence-based typing was performed on strain DNA extracts and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were analyzed.
Following 2 cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis, the hot water system investigation revealed a large proportion of L. pneumophila serogroup 5 positive taps (22/25 in wing A and 5/9 in wing B). High positivity was also detected in the heat exchanger of wing A in water samples (3/3) and swabs from the heat exchanger (4/5). The outbreak genotyping investigation identified the hot water system as the source of infections. Genotyping results revealed that all isolated environmental strains harbored the same related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and sequence-based type.
Two cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis occurred in the year following the installation of a heat exchanger to preheat hospital hot water. No cases were reported previously, although the same L. pneumophila strain was isolated from the hot water system in 1995. The heat exchanger promoted L. pneumophila growth and may have contributed to confirmed clinical cases.
Governments are increasingly implementing policies that encourage early father-infant bonding. However, to date, research has not systematically examined fathers’ perspectives and experiences of early bonding. Using a social constructionist embodiment perspective we argue that paternal bonding is best conceived as a process of repeated, embodied performances that are shaped by gendered parenting discourses. Drawing on 100 semi-structured interviews with a diverse group of Australian fathers of young infants, we argue that most men believe they are capable of developing early strong bonds. They assume that bonding is a product of spending sufficient time with a child, irrespective of the parent's gender. In contrast, a sizable minority of fathers assert that physiology means fathers are ‘largely useless’ to very young infants, and tend to remain distant in the early months. We conclude that social policies promoting early paternal bonding must engage with and challenge gendered/physiological discourses.
Objectives: Individuals with schizophrenia have difficulties on measures of executive functioning such as initiation and suppression of responses and strategy development and implementation. The current study thoroughly examines performance on the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT) in individuals with schizophrenia, introducing novel analyses based on initiation errors and strategy use, and association with lifetime clinical symptoms. Methods: The HSCT was administered to individuals with schizophrenia (N=77) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (N=45), along with background cognitive tests. The standard HSCT clinical measures (initiation response time, suppression response time, suppression errors), composite initiation and suppression error scores, and strategy-based responses were calculated. Lifetime clinical symptoms [formal thought disorder (FTD), positive, negative] were calculated using the Lifetime Dimensions of Psychosis Scale. Results: After controlling for baseline cognitive differences, individuals with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on the suppression response time and suppression error scales. For the novel analyses, individuals with schizophrenia produced a greater number of initiation errors and subtly wrong errors, and produced fewer responses indicative of developing an appropriate strategy. Strategy use was negatively correlated with FTD symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. Conclusions: The current study provides further evidence for deficits in the initiation and suppression of verbal responses in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, an inability to attain a strategy at least partly contributes to increased semantically connected errors when attempting to suppress responses. The association between strategy use and FTD points to the involvement of executive deficits in disorganized speech in schizophrenia. (JINS, 2016, 22, 735–743)
To determine the independent association between diabetes and surgical site infection (SSI) across multiple surgical procedures.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms “risk factors” or “glucose” and “surgical site infection.” A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). A random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates, and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity.
The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was odds ratio (OR)=1.53 (95% predictive interval [PI], 1.11–2.12; I2, 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% PI, 1.13–4.05) compared with surgeries of other types (P=.001).
These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients.
To determine whether increases in contact isolation precautions are associated with decreased adherence to isolation practices among healthcare workers (HCWs).
Prospective cohort study from February 2009 to October 2009.
Eleven teaching hospitals.
One thousand thirteen observations conducted on HCWs. Additional data included the number of persons in isolation, types of HCWs, and hospital-specific contact precaution practices. Main outcome measures included compliance with individual components of contact isolation precautions (hand hygiene before and after patient encounter, donning of gown and glove upon entering a patient room, and doffing upon exiting) and overall compliance (all 5 measures together) during varying burdens of isolation.
Compliance with hand hygiene was as follows: prior to donning gowns/gloves, 37.2%; gowning, 74.3%; gloving, 80.1%; doffing of gowns/gloves, 80.1%; after gown/glove removal, 61%. Compliance with all components was 28.9%. As the burden of isolation increased (20% or less to greater than 60%), a decrease in compliance with hand hygiene (43.6%—4.9%) and with all 5 components (31.5%—6.5%) was observed. In multivariable analysis, there was an increase in noncompliance with all 5 components of the contact isolation precautions bundle (odds ratio [OR], 6.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-37.44]; P = .03) and in noncompliance with hand hygiene prior to donning gowns and gloves (OR, 10.1 [95% CI, 1.84—55.54]; P = .008) associated with increasing burden of isolation.
As the proportion of patients in contact isolation increases, compliance with contact isolation precautions decreases. Placing 40% of patients under contact precautions represents a tipping point for noncompliance with contact isolation precautions measures.